### Radiometric dating - Wikipedia

Radioisotope dating has revealed that the age of the Earth is – billion According to calculations based on the fundamental law of rotational motion. Those dating methodologies didn't hold up to modern science, as it eventually Scientists now know the Earth is actually billion years old, an age built on the first major effort to date the planet using radiometric dating. Thus, the “ages” assigned to rocks on the basis of radiometric dating are The estimated age is then computed based on the measured dust.

Their source rocks have not yet been found. The rocks and zircons set a lower limit on the age of Earth of 4. Meet the neighbors In an effort to further refine the age of Earth, scientists began to look outward.

**Radioactive Dating**

The material that formed the solar system was a cloud of dust and gas that surrounded the young sun. Gravitational interactions coalesced this material into the planets and moons at roughly the same time.

By studying other bodies in the solar system, scientists are able to find out more about the early history of the planet. The nearest body to Earth, the moondoes not suffer from the resurfacing problems that cover Earth's landscape. As such, rocks from early lunar history should be present on the moon.

### Age of the Earth - Wikipedia

Samples returned from the Apollo and Luna missions revealed ages between 4. The source rocks for the small shards have not yet been identified. John Valley, University of Wisconsin. In addition to the large bodies of the solar system, scientists have also studied smaller rocky visitors to that fell to Earth. Meteorites spring from a variety of sources. Some are cast off from other planets after violent collisions, while others are leftover chunks from the early solar system that never grew large enough to form a cohesive body.

Although no rocks have been deliberately returned from Marssamples exist in the form of meteorites that fell to Earth long ago, allowing scientists to make approximations about the age of rocks on the red planet. Some of these samples have been dated to 4. More than 70 meteorites have fallen to Earth to have their ages calculated by radiometric dating.

The oldest of these have ages between 4. Fifty thousand years ago, a rock hurled down from space to form Meteor Crater in Arizona. Shards of that asteroid have been collected from the crater rim and named for the nearby Canyon Diablo. InClair Cameron Patterson measured ratios of lead isotopes in samples that put tight constraints on Earth's age.

However, much of this research was treated as obsolete after the development of plate tectonics theory. The evolutionary Earth growth constant found by us can serve as solid ground to revive the expanding Earth hypothesis. Methods and Results Kant-Laplace hypothesis The greatest thinkers of our planet have been fascinated by questions about the origin and evolution of the planetary system and the Sun.

Philosopher Kant and mathematician Laplace along with many astronomers and physicists of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries tackled this problem. Although much understanding has been gained over the past two centuries, conclusive answers to questions pertaining to the origin and evolution of our solar system are still not clear. In the classical Kant-Laplace hypothesis, angular momentum is the most important characteristic of an isolated mechanical system, which our Sun and its surrounding planets are.

The whole process of planetary evolution, from the initial stage of cosmic nebula to the formation of the Sun and the eight planets, was in strict accordance with angular momentum. The rotation consists of the orbital motion of the planets and the axial rotation of the Sun and the planets.

Angular momentum of each planet relative to the center of mass almost coinciding with the center of the Sun is defined as the product of the mass of the planet, its speed, and the distance to the center of rotation, e.

Angular momentum associated with the rotation of the planets around their axes is negligible because of the relatively small masses of the planets and their radii [ 4 ].

Approaches for calculating the age of the Earth How old is the Earth?

## Age of the Earth

This is one of the most important concerns for humanity, as the Earth is the cradle of humankind and all living beings. The answer can be found in many scientific reference materials. Presently, Christian, Islamic, and Judaic scholars insist that the age of the Earth and the universe is not more than to 12, years, and their views are based on religious texts.

Importantly, these sacred texts are based on symbolic years and periods. Yet, it is worthwhile to note that even the history of the development of scientific methods for determining the age of the Earth is full of blind alleys and misconceptions. Thomson published a series of works between and devoted to the determination of the age of the Earth. He assumed that the Earth formed in a liquid state, and then, it began to cool as heat radiated from its surface.

Using the theory of heat conduction, he calculated the time required for the Earth to cool to its modern temperature. This hypothesis brought Thomson into dispute with the great naturalist Charles Darwin, who knew that the discovery of radioactivity by Becquerel in would resolve this dispute in the future. American chemist Willard Libby developed the absolute radiocarbon dating method for organic subjects inand he won the Nobel Prize for chemistry in for his work. Quickly, researchers realized that radioactive elements could work as natural clocks, as radioactive decay adheres to strict time patterns.

The majority of evolutionists accept the current estimated age for the Earth and our solar system of 4. What is this based on? This estimate was derived from the ratios of various lead isotopes found in meteorites.

Using this method, the oldest terrestrial rocks have been characterized as being 3. Presently, scientists tend not to argue over the age of the Earth, largely as a result of the continued development of the radiometric dating method and elimination of some of its shortcomings. However, additional evidence is required in order to determine the age of the Earth accurately. This is because the radiometric method, which indicates an Earth age of 4. In other words, it would be beneficial to determine the age of the Earth on a different basis.

Fossil coral effect In this paper, a different approach to solving the problem is proposed. As is known from studies of million year old fossil corals, Earth years were days in duration during distant times.

This fact was detected through analyses of the growth lines on the bodies of fossil corals, whereby every specific line represents a year, similar to the rings on a cut tree [ 78 ]. In the past, the Earth rotated faster than it does today. We shall now turn to the physics of solid body rotation to study this phenomenon.

## Non-Radiometric Dating of the Age of the Earth: Implications From Fossil Coral Evidence

Let us consider the main categories of rotational movements and discuss the fundamental law of rotational motion dynamics. The moment of inertia of a body defines the inertia of that body with respect to rotational motion. The moment of inertia includes the impact of the angular acceleration of a body mass, its geometrical dimensions, location of the mass relative to the axis of rotation, and distribution of the mass in the volume of the body.

In accordance with the law of kinetic energy conservation, we can state that E1 and E2, which means that 4 are the mass, radius, and angular velocity of the Earth million years ago and are the mass, radius, and angular velocity of the Earth today. Assuming that mass m1 m1 is equal to or negligibly different from m2, i.

Thus, from equation 4 after canceling out masses m1 and m2we can obtain an analytical value for the radius of the Earth million years ago as follows: Using the number of days in the year derived from ancient corals, we can determine the length of a day and the number of seconds in an Earth year million years ago.

For the calculations, we shall use the sidereal day on Earth, which in the year was 23 h, 56 min, and 4. Let us call 1. Kant first proposed the idea of the secular slowing rotation of the Earth under the influence of tidal friction in Since then, the uneven rotation of the Earth and the motion of the poles have been monitored on a regular basis.

Based on the analysis of hundreds of solar and lunar eclipses over the last years, Richard Stephenson from Durham University in the UK concluded that the terrestrial day is getting longer by almost 0.