Drinking alcohol, detergent, laundry bluing, fabric softener, bleach, acid, methylated . Uruguay—another Latin American setting where abortion was recently likely date from when operating-room D&C procedures were the norm —can further . two-thirds of postabortion care patients at the major hospital in the capital city. However, to date there have been no studies of functional brain connectivity in BDD. percent who shared needles and did not clean shared needles with bleach, M Brain White Matter Development Is Associated with a 28 Caucasian, 1 Hispanic, and 1 biracial] consented to participate in the. The Bleach manga and anime created by Tite Kubo. The series takes place in a fictional . the faces of real people he sees, a hobby of his dating back to childhood. . He is of mixed Japanese/Mexican heritage and a student who towers over . Hō and Ban's dolls are Guhl and Günther, bottle caps that manipulate water.
The chapter provides new worldwide estimates of unintended pregnancy, by which we mean those that come too soon or are not wanted at all. It also examines factors that directly contribute to unintended pregnancy: Estimates of abortion incidence also permit the estimation of the incidence of unintended pregnancy—a robust indicator of gaps in effective contraceptive use and, in turn, the need to improve contraceptive information and services.
Reliable, high-quality data on the incidence of abortion are not consistently available for all countries. Where abortion is highly legally restricted, reliable reporting systems are usually absent. And even where the procedure is broadly legal, official records can be incomplete. Regardless of the legal setting, women are often highly reluctant to admit to having had an abortion in response to direct questioning because of the stigma surrounding the issue.
To address these formidable data challenges, population scientists have devised a range of methodologies to estimate abortion incidence at the national level.
These estimates are for each five-year period from throughat the global level, as well as the regional and subregional levels. This approach enables assessment of changes over the past 25 years and of variation across regions. We also present data from a related model that incorporates factors known to influence abortion safety.
The results, at global, regional and subregional levels, distribute annual abortions as of — into three categories: As of —, an estimated Overall, 35 abortions occur each year per 1, women aged 15—44 worldwide Figure 2. To put these estimates into real-life terms, an annual rate of 35 per 1, suggests that, on average, a woman would have one abortion in her lifetime. Moreover, women living under the most restrictive laws i.
Regionally, the highest estimated abortion rate is in Latin America and the Caribbean 44 abortions per 1, women; Figure 2. Rates in Africa and Asia are very close to the world average 34 and 36 per 1, At the subregional level, rates are fairly homogenous within Africa and Asia; however, they vary widely within Latin America and the Caribbean from 33 per 1, in Central America to 59 per 1, in the Caribbeanand within Europe from 16 per 1, in Western Europe to 42 per 1, in Eastern Europe.
Globally, the estimated annual number of abortions increased by 5.
Abortion Worldwide Uneven Progress and Unequal Access | Guttmacher Institute
The use of modern contraceptives also rose over this period, 18 but apparently not by enough to meet the demand created by the growing number of women needing contraception.
Time trends in the numbers of abortions for developed and developing regions were in opposite directions: Trends in abortion rates provide a better measure of change because rates take into account population growth. Although the global rate fell significantly between — and —, the drop was relatively small in absolute terms from 40 to 35 abortions per 1, women; Figure 2. The rate in developing regions remained basically unchanged 36—39 per 1, The drop in the abortion rate in developed regions was largely driven by declines in Eastern Europe, where the rate fell by more than half from 88 to 42 abortions per 1, women ; declines in countries in the former Soviet Bloc or zone of influence located in Southern and Northern Europe also contributed to this downward trend.
In addition, although there was no change in the developing regions as a whole, the abortion rate in Central Asia—which is made up of five former Soviet Republics—declined significantly from 54 to 42 per 1, The steady increase in access to and use of modern contraceptives 18 in these newly independent countries after the dissolution of the Soviet Union is reflected in the systematic drop from the high abortion rates that used to predominate.
Among 18 developed countries with complete official statistics, abortion rates range narrowly, from five to 18 abortions per 1, women of reproductive age, c with many below 10 Figure 2.
However, countries in which abortion is highly legally restricted generally lack official statistics on it, so estimates need to be based on a range of indirect methodologies.
Another data source is nationally representative surveys of women. Rates from such surveys are available primarily for countries of the former Soviet Union where abortion is legal and self-reported levels of abortion incidence exceed rates based on official statistics indicating that the latter are incomplete. Surveys in three such countries—Armenia —20 the Russian Federation 21 and Georgia 22 —found rates of 21, 34 and 56 abortions per 1, women of reproductive age, respectively.
This rate for Georgia is much lower than earlier survey-based estimates, namely per 1, in and per 1, in And given that levels of underreporting can vary across countries, these estimates do not necessarily reflect true country differences.
In most countries for which data are available, rates are higher in urban areas than in rural ones. In the United States, for example, the rate in metropolitan areas in was double that in nonmetropolitan areas 24 vs. In Switzerland, for example, the abortion rate among Swiss citizens was less than half that among noncitizens four vs.
Researchers recently proposed a broader, more nuanced conceptual framework that reflects the changing reality on the ground.
According to this framework, abortions fall into one of three categories: This means that less-safe procedures include those done by a trained provider but using an outdated method e. Least-safe abortions are those done by an untrained person a provider or the woman herself using a dangerous method e.
The study of abortion safety also examined the relationship between safety and legality using three specially defined categories of countries by restrictiveness: The timeliness of an abortion can be linked to its safety in legally restrictive settings. Although we lack government statistics for many countries, in 16 with reliable data all countries where safe abortion services are broadly accessible34 abortions take place overwhelmingly in the first trimester: The proportion of very early abortions—that is, those done by nine weeks—has been rising: Although these data provide some sense of which groups of women are more or less likely to have abortions, the limited evidence base means that patterns may not be generalizable to all countries.
However, age-specific abortion rates are available only for the relatively small group of countries that collect reliable data, primarily those that allow legal abortion under broad criteria. Age-specific abortion rates are determined by at least three factors: Among 17 countries with complete official statistics, abortion rates in 12 are highest for women aged 20—24 Figure 2. The results for some countries broadly reinforce the pattern described above—that is, use of abortion is concentrated among women in their twenties; 38 however, in a few countries, women in their early thirties have a larger proportion of abortions.
Whether a woman is in a union at the time can influence her response to an unintended pregnancy.
In many cultures, childbearing is approved of only within formal legal marriages, but in many others, childbearing within cohabiting and informal unions is also socially acceptable.
The relative strength of social sanctions against sexual activity and childbearing outside any type of union can also be key; these sanctions tend to be stronger in developing than in developed countries. As the majority of women in developing countries are in a union for most of their childbearing years, the number of abortions to in-union women is far greater than that to single women.
In contrast, in some developed countries e. As we will discuss in Chapter 6, desired family size has fallen steadily over recent decades, and small families of about two children have become the norm in most parts of the world.
The bulk of the remaining abortions is more or less equally divided between those occurring after a first birth and those after a second birth. In 12 of 19 countries all low- and middle-income with national survey data on the economic status of women who have had an abortion, the wealthiest two-fifths of women account for a disproportionate share of abortions.
In the remaining countries, there is little relationship between wealth and reported experience of abortion. Reasons why women have abortions The reasons why women choose to have an abortion are often closely related to union status and age; however, the decision to have an abortion is also influenced by other social, economic, partnership and health factors.
Data on the main reason women give for having an abortion are available for 13 countries, g ,47 and although these countries span a broad range of economic and abortion-law contexts, some commonalities emerge. Socioeconomic concerns is the most frequently cited type of reason, followed by wanting to stop childbearing and wanting to postpone or space a birth. Other main reasons include partner- and health-related issues, which vary widely in prevalence by country. A somewhat different pattern emerges among the three Sub-Saharan African countries than among the other Women in these three countries are far more likely than other women to cite a main reason related to being very young i.
In addition, limiting family size is a much less common main reason in these Sub-Saharan African countries, where many women and their husbands still desire large families.
For all 13 countries, there is rarely a single dominant reason, however. According to a study in Nigeria, lack of partner support for the abortion decision has been linked to both relatively late second-trimester abortions and the use of untrained providers. Legal abortions are a relatively recent phenomenon: The mid-to-late 20th century saw a wave of amendments to criminal codes, where most countries spell out exceptions under which induced abortion is not subject to penalties.
In the s and s, reform extended to much of the developed world—and to some developing countries, including China, Cuba, India and Tunisia. By the mids, abortions were broadly legal throughout most of Europe and in Northern America. Examples of this slow and steady historical shift can be found in every world region. Countries that lift restrictions do so through a wide array of paths. Evidence that unsafe abortion is a pressing public health concern and a preventable cause of ill-health and death often plays an important role in advocacy for reform.
This evidence continues to be useful in arguments in support of drafting laws, passing legislation and deciding court cases. In addition, pressure from international treaty bodies can be very effective in holding signatory governments accountable to the agreements that use rights to health, privacy and life to ensure access to abortions currently permitted by law, and to argue for expanding legal grounds.
Nevertheless, organizing the world according to a legality framework is an important first step to understand the broader picture of where abortion is allowed under the law. The legality continuum ranges from category 1, outright prohibition on any ground, to category 6, allowing abortion without restriction as to reason.
The four intermediate categories permit abortion on progressively broader grounds: Many countries permit abortion on at least one of the following three additional grounds: Broad legal status differs between developed and developing regions A nominal proportion—0. Given that the population of women in the developing world is nearly six times that in the developed world, 17 absolute numbers are needed to clarify the human scale.
But removing these two countries reduces this number in the developing world to 97 million, providing a very different perspective. We also assessed the situation through the lens of gross national income, using the World Bank's classification of countries into four income groups. Relatedly, the pattern reverses for the most restricted category: At the country level, laws vary substantially Looking at how countries fall across the spectrum is telling Appendix Table 1 ; Abortion Legality Map.
As with all laws, how legal criteria for abortion are interpreted and whether implementation mechanisms are in place to provide services vary markedly within this group. In high-income South Korea, for example, safe but clandestine procedures are widely available, despite a fairly restrictive law. These countries span a range of cultural and economic settings: Two are in the developed world New Zealand and the special jurisdiction of Northern Irelandwhile the remaining 22 developing-world countries range from the small island of Nauru to the midsize nations of Algeria, Colombia and Thailand.
List of Hollows in Bleach Hollows are the class of spirit that most enemies in Bleach are a part of. This makes them lose their sense of being and gives them a craving for human souls.
Their main characteristic is a white mask completely covering their face and a hole near their chest. Each hollow's mask has a design unique to that individual. The 10 Espadas are numbered0 being the strongest and 9 the weakest. But the rating also works with spirit pressure density numberedwith Espda's 0's power contained with a 10 tattoo. However, revealed to have played an indirect role in Ichigo's conception, Aizen is defeated by the young man before being captured by Kisuke and sentenced to the Muken for 20 millennia.
Abortion Worldwide 2017: Uneven Progress and Unequal Access
They are the main antagonists during the anime-exclusive Bount and Bount Assault on Soul Society arcs. The Bounts live eternally due to an accident during a scientific experiment earlier in the Soul Society, where they were created, and began to eat the souls of human beings to gain more power. They each have a unique weapon known as a Doll, a familiar which is its creator's power given physical form.
Dolls are mostly self-sufficient creatures when released, although they tend to be used as weapons in various ways such as a large battle axe or a snake, as a sword and whip. Their leader Kariya, motivated by the destruction of himself and all connected to him, plans to invade the Soul Society along with the remaining Bounts to destroy it and themselves. He was originally Eugene Currier, a boy who was befriended by the Soul Society scientist Ran'tao before being forced to leave his home when Soul Reapers are dispatched to kill the Bounts.
Jin Kariya's Doll is Messer, having long absorbed it to manipulate wind without releasing it into its true form.
While usings Messer's full power, Kariya can move the wind at such speeds in order to generate lightning and move at high speeds similar to a Flash Step. Eventually, defeated in the end, Kariya's true agenda is revealed to be the mutually assured destruction of the Soul Reapers and the Bounts. In the s, while still going under the name Claude Gaugain, Koga was living in a countryside somewhere in Europe when Kariya brought him Cain to guide in their ways.
But it ended with Cain's death which haunts Koga.
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In the end, after confronting Kariya and nearly getting killed by Hitsugaya, Kouga is the last remaining Bount as his wounds are tended to be Ren Tao. Waineton is voiced by Philece Sampler in the English dub. They can wrap themselves around their opponents in order to drown them or even flood a person's body killing them from the inside out. She fought Rukia, Orihime, and Kuroda in an alley until Mabashi ordered her to leave.
Yoshi's doll is Nieder who takes on the form of a jian and fan combination. In its base form, the fan can fire needle-like projectiles at its target. It can also be used for defense against regular attacks. The jian part of the Doll is used for regular offense. When the fan's size increases, it can protect Yoshi against all attacks, but Yoshi loses all form of offense.
When the jian increases in size, its offensive power increases further, as the jian gains a trail of energy swords. Thomas and Wendee Lee in the English dub. Mabashi's doll is Ritz who has the ability to possess the body of anyone and control them. Sawatari's doll is Baura who has a whale -like appearance that Sawatari sits on top of. Baura has a dimension in its stomach where anyone that is swallowed by Baura will die if they stay in him too long.
Thomas in the English dub. Ugaki's doll is Gesell which is a huge, eyeless monster. It has the ability to manifest many melee weapons from its limbs. Gesell can see through the eyes that generate light as his master does through his glasses.
It is controlled by Ugaki through a deck of cards. Whatever is shown on a card Ugaki plays, appears within the shadow of an object, which is created by the light generated from the eyes.
Ugaki fights Ichigo and Renji in a cave until signs of weakness causes him to be killed by his own doll. Gesell is voiced by Neil Kaplan in the English dub. Ugaki is also voiced by Patrick Seitz. Fighting against the other Bounts, Yoshino tried to take the soul of a human until she was stopped by Yoruichi. In the end, following Kariya's example, Yoshino absorbs Goethe to increase her power but is still killed with her energy used to create the Bittos. Goethe is voiced by Richard Epcar in the English dub.
But a Fullbringer's true power comes from enhancing the soul of an object they are compatible with, such as a prized possession. However, the effects of a Fullbringer's power will cease once the user is dead.
Using Tsukishima's Fullbring, Xcution's other members had placed themselves in a fabricated notion that they need a Soul Reaper to become normal humans and train Ichigo to use Fullbring. But once Tsukishima restored their memories, the group reveals their real intention to take Ichigo's Fullbring powers. In the past, he was the first substitute Soul Reaper before he went into hiding upon learning that he was not trusted by the Soul Society.
If suiting his fancy, Tsukishima can use his power to destroy the minds of his victims by having them suffer mental breakdowns from an overdose of false memories. Tsukishima then engages Byakuya in battle before being wounded and left to die.
Afterwards, carried away by Moe, Tsukishima dies from his injuries with everyone under his spell restored to normalcy. Having becoming immediately attracted to Ichigo, Riruka uses her power to train him while reluctantly befriending Orihime. But forced to use her Fullbring to enter Rukia's body after an exchange of words, Riruka changes sides and risks her own life to protect Ichigo from Tsukishima.
Riruka is later enlisted by Kisuke to help Ichigo and his friends during the battle against Yhwach. Prior to joining Xcution, Yukio came from a wealthy family. But the neglect by his parents and turning to his power led to Yukio stealing his family's fortune and indirectly causing his parents' suicide after he ran way. Taking over in the last stages of Ichigo's Fullbring training, Yukio later gained a power boost that allows him to Fullbring without his game console.
After being defeated by Toshiro Hitsugaya, later confronted by Jackie Tristan, Yukio decides to improve upon his father's company and eventually hire the surviving Xcution members. Yukio is later enlisted by Kisuke to help Ichigo and his friends during the battle against Yhwach.
After her power boost, Jackie gains exhaust pipes on her right shoulder that covers enough of her body in muck that she can shatter the ground with a simple step. Unlike the others in her group, as she was unable to protect her family with her power, Jackie hated her Fullbring and genuinely wished to be rid of it.
She eventually got her wish after she seemingly sacrificed herself to get Renji out of Yukio's Fullbring, feeling some regret in losing her power while promised a position in Yukio's company alongside the other surviving members of their group.
These timers are linked to specific conditions that Giriko himself can set. But once the time period is established, however, not even Giriko himself can deactivate and the subject must attain the conditions or be burned away by time itself.
After Xcution steals Ichigo's Fullbring powers, Giriko gained the ability to increase his body mass and strength in relation to the simplicity of his ability's condition. But to his shock, Giriko is easily killed off by Kenpachi Zaraki. But the downside is that the longer he uses it, the weaker he becomes. After the fight between the Soul Reapers and Xcution conclude, Shishigawara was last seen carrying the dying Tsukishima away.
Their attire usually consists of long white trench coats fitted with numerous buttons, a cape, a belt usually a piece individual to each memberand a five-pointed cross, the Quincy Zeichen, somewhere upon the uniform.