Midface - Authors' added material - AO Surgery Reference
Mar 29, The boundaries of the orbit are formed by seven bones. It is also important to consider the anatomical relations of the orbital cavity – this is. Each assists in forming the boundaries of three cavities, viz., the roof of the mouth , the floor and lateral wall of the nose and the floor of the orbit; it also enters into. Mar 3, Background/Aims Up to date, no standardised reproducible orbital delineates the boundaries of orbital cavity three- dimensionally (3D).
The divergent axis of each orbit thus becomes half of 45 degrees or In the adult human the volume of the orbit is 30 ml. Because of the complicated anatomical structure of the bony orbit, measurement of its volume is difficult. The problems are mainly due to the irregular inner border, holes and fissures.
We have now made use of Cranioviewer orbital program software [developed by Vizkelety and Markella], together with cone beam computed tomography CBCTto investigate both orbits in 20 patients with intraorbital implants and in 20 patients with various dental problems otherwise healthy. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports in the literature of using CBCT scans for orbital volume measurement. Merely a few literature articles mention an orbital volume decrease after enucleation in adults.
Our primary aim was to establish whether there is any detectable difference between the volumes of the healthy and the operated orbits, or between those of the healthy left and right orbits. Patients and Methods The study received ethical approval from Semmelweis University, Budapest, and complied fully with institutional ethical protocols and the guidelines of the Helsinki Declaration.
This type of CBCT can image not only the facial skull, but also the orbital cavity. CBCT scans were made in an attempt to detect changes within the orbital implants in vivo in 30 patients.
The gained selection of data may be rotated freely.
In ten cases the situation of the heads was not so good, as can be accepted, for this reason we cannot rotate them properly for measurement. These cases were excluded from the patients. We used only that cases whose heads were in the desired position. The scans utilized for orbital measurements in this study were from 20 of these subjects 8 men, 12 women; mean age Enucleation had been peformed because of severe injury in 9 cases, a painful eye in 5 cases, an intraocular malignant melanoma in 5 cases, and retinoblastoma in 1 case.
FCI synthetic hydroxyapatite had been used as the orbital implant for volume replacement in 12 cases, and aluminium Bioceramic in 8 cases. In 18 cases the implantation had been primary, and in 2 cases secondary. The diameter of the implant was 20 mm in 12 cases, and 18 mm in 8 cases. The Cranioviewer orbital program software was used in conjuction with the CBCT scans for special volume measurement.
The nasolacrimal duct is present by the margin of the orbital surface. The ventral oblique muscle attaches caudal to the margin of the orbital surface. The nasal surface forms the boundaries of the maxillary and frontal sinuses.
The Bony Orbit - Borders - Contents - Fractures - TeachMeAnatomy
Zygomatic Bone os zygomaticum The zygomatic bone is lateral and ventral to the lacrimal bone and forms the orbit and zygomatic arch. The supraorbital margin is formed by the zygomatic process of the temporal bone and the frontal process of the zygomatic bone. The facial crest is present on lateral surface.
Incisive Bone os incisivium Cow skull lateral view, nabrown, The incisive bone is a paired structure composed of body, nasal, palatine and alveolar parts.
It joins with the maxilla to form the interalveolar margin. It also forms the rostral part of the facial section of the skull, the roof of the hard palate and the opening to the nasal cavity.
- AOCMF Classification Midface (Level 1 and 2)
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The alveolar process forms conical sockets for the incisor teeth. Palatine Bone os palatinum Palatine Bone, nabrown, The palatine bone is a paired structure between the maxilla, sphenoid and pterygoid bones. It is composed of a horizontal plate forms part of the hard palateperpendicular plate forms the dorsal and lateral walls of the nasopharyngeal meatus and the choanae.
The nasal crest present on the horizontal plate. The palatine sinus is present on horizontal plate. Vomer The vomer is unpaired and extends from the choanae of the palatine bone to the floor of the nasal cavity. It attaches to the median nasal crest and has a septal sulcus which surrounds nasal cavity. Pterygoid Bone os pterygoideum The pterygoid bone is a paired structure bordered by the palatine and sphenoid bones.
It forms the dorsal and lateral walls of the nasopharyngeal cavity. The pterygoid hamulus is formed by the pterygoid bone. Maxilla Horse Maxilla, nabrown, The maxilla forms most of the facial part of the skull, including the lateral walls of the face, nasal cavity, oral cavity and hard palate. It also forms the ventral nasal conchae and articulates with all of the facial bones as it is the largest bone of the face.
The maxillary body encloses the maxillary sinuses and forms the external surface of the face. It also forms the facial crest. The infraorbital foramen is palpable. The conchal crest is on nasal surface where the ventral nasal conchae attaches. The lacrimal canal opens into the lacrimal foramen on the nasal surface. The pterygopalatine surfaces are the caudal part of the maxilla which terminate in the maxillary tubercle where the sphenopalatine, maxillary and caudal palatine foramen are present.
The alveolar processes present are separated by interalveolar septa. The palatine process forms the hard palate with the palatine bone. The palatine fissure is formed at the articulation with the incisive bone. The nasal surface of palatine process forms the nasal crest and encloses part of the palatine sinuses. The oral surface has numerous palatine foramina present.
Mandible mandibula Cow Mandible, nabrown, Parrot Mandible, nabrown, The mandible can be divided into the body and the ramus. The body of the mandible supports the incisor teeth rostrally and cheek teeth caudally. The section of the body which does not support any teeth is called the interalveolar margin or diastema. The mandibule also contains the mandibular canal and the mental foramen.
Skull and Facial Muscles - Anatomy & Physiology - WikiVet English
The facial notch is on the ventral surface where the parotid duct in herbivores and facial vessels run. The ramus extends from the caudal end of the body dorsally towards the zygomatic arch.3 Keys to Set Good Boundaries in Dating and Relationships
The masseter muscle attaches to the lateral surface at the masseteric fossa. The medial pterygoid attaches to the medial surface at the pterygoid fossa. The angle of the mandible terminates dorsally in the condylar process and the coronoid process which are separated by the mandibular notch. The temporal muscle inserts onto the coronoid head. The condylar process articulates with the mandibular process of the skull see here.
The jugular foramen also contains the internal carotid artery. The foramen magnum is formed by the occipital bones and is the spinal cord's passage to the neck and body. Anterior skull base related to the anterior cranial fossa Spheno- and temporolateral skull base Occipital cranial vault related to the posterior cranial fossa Each of these divisions comprises several bone components.
If a fracture occurs in any such regional component the whole division is considered to be involved. The anterior skull base primarily consists of the frontal bone, ie, the orbital roofs, the cribriform plate, and the jugum, as well as the lesser wings of the sphenoid.
The squamous part of the frontal bone is designated as frontal cranial vault.
The Bony Orbit
Frontal sinus fractures are all regarded as fractures of the frontal cranial vault. The spheno-temporolateral skull base is composed of the sphenoid body, the greater sphenoid wings, the temporal bone, and the groove for the sigmoid sinus. The occipital cranial vault includes the posterior skull base and is designated as such. The basal view shows the extent of two of the three major divisions of the skull base: Spheno-temporolateral skull base Occipital cranial vault The facial substructures formed by the zygomas and the maxillae conceal the anterior skull base from view.
Though anatomically speaking the pterygoid processes are part of the sphenoid they are considered as distinct elements in the definition of a classic Le Fort fracture, where involvement is mandatory. In a graphical scheme of the skull, diagrammatic recording of the fracture pattern in the midface, orbits, skull base, and cranial vault is done by checking criteria in the appropriate subdivision. The current version does not represent the endpoint of the development process and will be updated progressively.
Fractures of midface and orbit - Level 2 spread sheet style recording Another option is the documentation in a spread sheet style.
The spread sheet boxes are identically color coded as the anatomical divisions or partitions of the skull. Checking the boxes reveals the relevant Le Fort pattern as a summary.
This software package combines all AO classification systems specific for the anatomic sites of the adult and pediatric human skeleton. A CMF Module adult midface and mandible has been newly released and can be downloaded free of charge for ready application. Every thumbnail can be zoomed large for recording from the most appropriate side.