Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa - Wikipedia
While the presence of Islam in West Africa dates back to eighth century, the spread In the first stage, African kings contained Muslim influence by segregating Muslim . The 19th century jihad movements best exemplify the third phase in the. The Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa (abbreviated MOJWA) or the Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa (abbreviated MUJWA; Arabic. The first West Africans to be converted were the inhabitants of the Sahara, the . This method allowed the third and final stage of the process of Islamisation to reach The first jihad in the Western Sudan which has accounts was that waged by the .. This date marks the defeat of the Sokoto Sultan against the British armies.
As an outspoken born-again Christian, he knows that vigorous condemnation of strict Islamic law will only inflame passions further and at the same time he fears that the spread of sharia law will increase religious tension and undermine Nigerian unity.
Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs: Islamische Bildung und soziale Integration in Ilorin Nigeria seit ca. ISBN Les routes de l'islam: African Languages and Cultures: The heritage of Islam: The 'Ishriniyat' of Al-Fazazi: Muenster WestfalenUniv. Journal Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs: The Nupe factor in Nigerian Islamic history: The Journal of African History: Power and diplomacy in Northern Nigeria, Ibadan history series Bibliography: University of Khartoum, Faculty of arts, African studies seminar paper ; no.
Ibadan history series Oorspr. The impact of the Sokoto jihad on the Kurama people of eastern Zazzau c. A little new light: ISBN x A revolution in history: East-West University Islamic studies Met ind. Abhandlungen fuer die Kunde des Morgenlandes ; 48,1 Met bibliogr. Khartoum University Press ; Oxford [etc. Oxford University Press, English and Arabic text. Islamic publications bureau, Iman Publications, [na ].
The Sokoto jihad and the "O-kun" Yoruba: Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria: The jihad in Hausaland as an episode in African history: The Shehu and the Mullah: The jihad in the south: The Jihad of Shehu Dan Fodio: The Fulani concept of jihad: Ibadan University Press, Islamic law and judicial practice in Nigeria: Journal of Muslim MInority Affairs, vol.
Center for Religious Freedom, Freedom House, Hausa Islamic law in a Yoruba city: Their power came from having large pack animals like camels and horses that were fast enough to keep a large empire under central control and were also useful in battle. All of these empires were also quite decentralised with member cities having a great deal of autonomy. Ghana was first mentioned by Arab geographer Al-Farazi in the late 8th century.
Afterthe empire expanded rapidly, coming to dominate the entire western Sudan; at its height, the empire could field an army ofsoldiers.
History of West Africa - Wikipedia
Ghana was inhabited by urban dwellers and rural farmers. The urban dwellers were the administrators of the empire, who were Muslims, and the Ghana kingwho practised traditional religion. Two towns existed, one where the Muslim administrators and Berber-Arabs lived, which was connected by a stone-paved road to the king's residence. The rural dwellers lived in villages, which joined together into broader polities that pledged loyalty to the Ghana.
The Ghana was viewed as divine, and his physical well-being reflected on the whole society.
Ghana converted to Islam aroundafter conquering Aoudaghost. Ghana controlled access to the goldfields of Bambouksoutheast of Koumbi Saleh.
A percentage of salt and gold going through its territory was taken. The empire was not involved in production. By the 11th century, Ghana was in decline. It was once thought that the sacking of Koumbi Saleh by Berbers under the Almoravid dynasty in was the cause. This is no longer accepted. Several alternative explanations are cited. One important reason is the transfer of the gold trade east to the Niger River and the Taghaza Trail, and Ghana's consequent economic decline.
Another reason cited is political instability through rivalry among the different hereditary polities. Keita Dynasty The Mali Empire at its greatest extent, c. Sundiata continued his conquest from the fertile forests and Niger Valley, east to the Niger Bend, north into the Sahara, and west to the Atlantic Ocean, absorbing the remains of the Ghana Empire.
Sundiata took on the title of mansa. He established the capital of his empire at Niani. The growing of sorghummilletand rice was a vital function. On the northern borders of the Sahel, grazing cattle, sheep, goats, and camels were major activities. Mande society was organised around the village and land.
A cluster of villages was called a kafu, ruled by a farma.
3: Islam in West Africa. Introduction, spread and effects
The farma paid tribute to the mansa. A dedicated army of elite cavalry and infantry maintained order, commanded by the royal court. A formidable force could be raised from tributary regions, if necessary. The power of the mansa depended on upholding traditional beliefs and a spiritual foundation of power. Zaynab was the daughter of a wealthy merchant from Houara, who was said to be from Kairouan. InAbu Bakr Ibn Umar made a division of the power he had established, handing over the more-settled parts to his cousin Yusuf Ibn Tashfin as viceroy, and also assigning to him his favourite wife Zaynab.
Ibn Umar kept the task of suppressing the revolts that had broken out in the desert. When he returned to resume control, he found his cousin too powerful to be superseded. In NovermberAbu Bakr was killed in battle — according to oral tradition by an arrow, while fighting in the historic region of the Sudan.
In he founded the city of Marrakech. Inhe conquered the kingdom of Tlemcen in modern-day Algeria and founded the present city of that name, his rule extending as far east as Oran. An example of this tradition is the record of historian Ibn Khaldun, who cited Shaykh Uthman, the faqih of Ghana, writing in According to this source, the Almoravids weakened Ghana and collected tribute from the Sudan, to the extent that the authority of the rules of Ghana dwindled away, and they were subjected and absorbed by the Soso, a neighboring people of the Sudan.
Traditions in Mali related that the Soso attacked and took over Mali as well, and the ruler of the Soso, Sumaouro Kante Sumanguru Kante took over the land. Lisbon was conquered by the Portuguese in According to some scholars, Ali Ibn Yusuf provided a new generation of leadership that had forgotten the desert life for the comforts of the city.
He was defeated by the combined action of his Christian foes in Iberia and the agitation of Almohads the Muwahhids in Morocco. In he was killed in a fall from a precipice while attempting escape after a defeat near Oran. The conquest of the city of Marrakech by the Almohads in marked the fall of the dynasty, though fragments of the Almoravids the Banu Ghanaiya, continued to struggle in the Balearic Islands, and finally in Tunisia.
Military organization Abdallah Ibn Yussin imposed very strict discipline measures on his forces for every breach of his laws The Almoravid first military leader, Yahya Ibn Umar al-Lamtuni, gave them a good military organization.
Their main force was infantry, armed with javelins in the front ranks and pikes behind, which formed into a phalanx, and was supported by camelmen and horsemen on the flanks. They also had a flag carrier as the front who guided the forces behind him, when the flag was upright, the combatants behind would stand and when it was turned down, they would sit.
Al-Bakri reports that, while in combat, the Almoravids did not pursue those who fled in front of them. Their fighting was intense and they did not retreat when disadvantage by an advancing opposing force, they preferred death over defeat.
These characteristics were possibly unusual at the time. The Jakhanke Islamization effort indeed have borne rich fruit! But let us begin by addressing the brass tacks: Why do they deserve attention in our study of the spread of Islam in West Africa?
Today, they are erroneously categorized as Mandinka. Apparently, the Jakhanke who are found in the Senegambia region today in large numbers do not put much premium on their ethnic origins but rather on their work as propagators of Islam in the past years. This is exactly why the Jakhanke should interest us. They started a peaceful propagation of Islam in the Senegambia region. This is all the more relevant as we write today because of the rampant violence associated with Islam in many parts of the world.
Much of the subsequent styles, and techniques associated with the peaceful spread of Islam in Senegambia is their creation. In a nutshell, they set the standards for missionary work. What were these standards? Chiefly, they professed the peaceful path to Islam.
Islam in Nigeria | African Studies Centre Leiden
They did not raise the sword to spread the religion. But just as they had methods, they also had tactics! For example, they believed in numbers and therefore were keen to multiply their talibes or disciples. The disciples having gone through years of tutelage, would be allowed to disperse and then mass up new disciples themselves. Through massification, the Jakhanke helped to strengthen their religion. Also, they had a tactic of withdrawing into enclaves far from the maddening crowds, so to speak.
Generally, Jakhanke needed the quietude of the monastery and thus were very good at establishing theocratic entities sometimes deep in the Senegambian Savannah, where they developed self sustaining communities dedicated to Islamic scholarship and renditions. So far absent in our discussion is the figure of Alhaji Salim Suwareh, the founder of the Jakhanke Islamic movement we have discussed above. He was a central in the success of the Jakhanke missionary work and therefore deserves our brief attention.
His early life is shrouded in mystery, but a few strands deserve serious attention and are revealing. He died around and reputedly made seven pilgrimages to Mecca where he had relatives and lived before relocating to Black Africa to spread Islam, settling in the Jaka region of Masina, in present day Mali.
When he completed his seventh hajj, he returned to Africa and stayed. He led his people from Jaka Masina to Jaka Bambuku.
When the animist ruler of Bambuku became hostile, Suwareh did as the prophet of Islam did when Meccans started to throw stones at him: Suwareh led his band of talibes towards present day Senegambia.
So dedicated were the Jakhanke to the spirit of peaceful spread of Islam that when a Serahuli religious hothead, Momodou Lamin Drammeh opted to wage war to convert Bundu eastern Senegal into Islam, the Jakhanke disowned him and fled further down to present eastern Gambia. His swashbuckling style was quite in contrast to their orderly ways of Islamization!
Without bearing the sword, the Jakhanke were able to fasten the spread and reform of Islam in contrast to the jihadist like Drammeh, Umar Taal, or Maba Jahou Bah. The paradox here may not be obvious but is palpable: To conclude therefore, what is the significance of the Jakhanke movement?
Simply put, the Jakhanke epitomized peaceful and community led spread of Islam which made a deep impact on the recipient societies of Islam as the way of peace.
The present day bomb throwers who claim to spread this religion by doing so may want to learn a lesson or two from the Jakhanke movement which started over years ago For further reading: London Ampadu B.