Wedding customs by country - Wikipedia
In many regions, crêpes are eaten on 2 February, the Feast of the Virgin. The ceremonial nature and symbolism of food are evident in rural wedding ceremonies. Culture of Sudan - history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, for a bride and groom not to have seen each other before the wedding. Culture of India - history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, Generally, the country has two main types of marriage: a north Indian one in which.
In south west France it is customary to serve spit roast wild boar or sanglier in French as the wedding breakfast, a local delicacy. Some couples choose to serve a croquembouche instead of a wedding cake. At more boisterous weddings, tradition involves continuing the celebration until very late at night. In many regions of France, wedding rituals continue late into the night after the official ceremonies and party. In some regions after the reception, those invited to the wedding will gather outside the newlyweds' window and bang pots and pans; this is called a 'charivari'.
They are then invited into the house for some more drinks in the couple's honor, after which the couple is finally allowed to be alone for their first night together as husband and wife. Afterwards, the whole group will enjoy an onion soup. The heavily scatological and sexual implications and off-putting appearance of this ritual is supposed to symbolize the day-to-day intimacy of married life, deeply connected to the rural nature of the area.
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The commensal quality of the ritual is a symbol for the bridge between youth and adulthood that the couple becomes in marriage, as well as the community's involvement in the new couple's married life. German customs[ edit ] Mostly it is the good friends who kidnap the bride. Here, the kidnappers go with her from bar to bar, the best man of the bride or her father or the groom have to pay the bill every time. The kidnappers go to a certain place, such as a public building, and leave a few pointers to help for searching.
The exemption may be associated with a task for the groom, for example an artistic performance or wash the dishes for the next few weeks. In Austria and Bavaria preferably at country weddingsit is now customary to sing a derisive song before the freeing of the bride. In Lower Austria it is customary for the masked men and the bride to go to the nearest coffee bar or tavern to drink, sing and to wait for the groom to come.
In most areas of Austria it is the best man, sometimes the groom or the bride's father rarely the best man that pays the price of the kidnappers. This ordinariness is due to the supposed 'right of the first night' German 'Recht der ersten Nacht', French 'droit du seigneur' in the Middle Ages. According to myth the clergy and nobility in the Middle Ages had the right to deflower their female subordinates in their wedding night.
Back then the brides was retrieved kidnapped from the vassals of the government from their Weddings. The historiography sees this right rather as a literary fiction. In Bavaria and Western Austria another tradition is to wake up the bride early in the morning with a gun shoot or firecrackers on wedding day. Friends and neighbours meet at dawn at the brides house to "greet" her on her special day. Two or three days before the wedding, the couple organizes a celebration called Krevati Greek for bed in their new home.
In Krevati, friends and relatives of the couple put money and young children on the couple's new bed for prosperity and fertility in their life. After the custom, they usually have a party with food and music. On the day of the wedding, usually Saturday, but also Friday or Sunday, the groom cannot see the bride until the wedding ceremony. The groom usually arrives first in church and waits for bride, who usually arrives late.
After they exchange flower bouquets, they have the wedding ceremony, where the best man puts the wedding rings and crowns on the couple. The couple drink red wine from the same glass between one and three sips, depending on the tradition. This is not "communion" in the formal religious sense, but about sharing the cup of life.
At the end of the wedding ceremony, as the newly wedded pair leave the church, the guests throw rice and flowers for fertility and felicity. Special guests, such as close friends and family receive sugar-coated almonds traditionally an odd number, usually seven but sometimes five as a gift from the couple.
Most Greek ceremonies are Orthodox. After the ceremony, usually the couple hold a great wedding party in some place with plenty of food, drinks, music and dance, usually until next morning. The wedding party starts with the invited people waiting for the couple, who usually come after some time.
They start the dancing and eventually eat a piece of their wedding cake. In many places of Greecewhere they hold a more traditional wedding, they usually play only traditional music and eat local food. For example, in the region of Cycladesthey eat the traditional pasteli solid honey with sesame and in the region of Crete they cook rice with goat. In most traditional weddings, they bake whole animals like pigs, goats or sheep just like the Easter celebration.
Before the church ceremony, especially in smaller areas, usually friends and relatives of the bride and the groom, accompanies them separately to the church playing traditional instruments, according to the region. A typical Greek wedding will usually have more than invited people but usually who are friends, siblings, grandparents, uncles, aunts, first or second cousins, neighbors and colleagues. It is common to have guests whom the couple has never met before.
This is because the people who will be invited are usually determined by the parents of the couple and not by the couple themselves. Traditionally, the whole village would have attended the wedding, so very often the parents invite friends of theirs and their children, to the weddings of their own children.
There are many other traditions which are local to their regional areas. One famous tradition is the pinning of money on the bride's dress. This custom originated in one part of Greece, where it is a substitute for wedding presents, however it has become more widespread recently. Italian customs[ edit ] In some parts of Italya party, known as a Serenade, is thrown outside of the bride's home by the groom.
His family and friends come and wait for the bride, entertaining themselves until she appears. The groom then sings to his bride to further seduce her. Once his song is sung, the party ends. The day of the wedding, the groomsmen try their hardest to make the groom as uncomfortable as possible by saying things like "Maybe she forgot where the church is". It is not uncommon for ceremonial meals to last three or more hours. In Normandy, a tradition that involves having a drink of calvados after each course further lengthens the meal.
Wedding customs by country
Holidays are associated with special foods. Elaborate meals are served on Christmas Eve by Catholic families who attend midnight Mass. The ceremonial nature and symbolism of food are evident in rural wedding ceremonies. Often, mixtures of food and drink are presented to the wedding couple in a chamber pot in the early hours of the morning after the wedding.
These mixtures can include champagne and chocolate or savory soups with carrots and onion. These are ceremonial occasions, and each person who helps the family is given a portion of the pig. The "thirty glorious years" of expansion of industry after World War II ended with the oil crises of the s. Since then, the country has rebuilt its economy and has one of the four leading economies in Western Europe.
France is also a major agricultural nation and is self-sufficient in this sector. Agriculture now accounts for less than 3 percent of the GNP, however. The major agricultural crop is wheat. High unemployment has plagued the country since the s, particularly among youth.
The unemployment rate was almost 13 percent in Inclusion in the EU has had a major impact on the economy, opening some markets and restricting others. InFrance will convert from the franc to the euro for all financial transactions. After several decades of nationalization of major industries, France deregulated those sectors in the s, to create a freer market.
Land Tenure and Property. Until the middle of the twentieth century, agriculture was dominated by small holdings and family farms. Two factors have affected rural land holdings since World War II. There has been an acceleration of the rural exodus leading to a strong migration toward cities, along with a consolidation of farm lands that had been scattered through inheritance patterns.
This was called le remembrement and was more successful in some regions than in others. There are many small businesses and shops on city streets, and street markets thrive in the major cities. In the centers of towns, small shops and specialty boutiques abound. Prices are fixed in stores for the most part, but at markets there is still a lot of bargaining.
The commercial services of rural villages have declined during the last twenty years, as a result of depopulation and the attraction of new chain stores. Increasingly, the butchers, bakers, and grocers have closed shop, and people make purchases in small shopping markets or travel to the nearest city to buy less expensive goods. Industry historically was centered in the northeast and eastern part of the nation, primarily in Paris, Lille, and Lyon.
This has changed with the penetration of industry into the hinterlands and the south. The leading industries are steel, machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy, aeronautics, electronics, mining, and textiles. Tourism is a growing industry in the countryside. Food processing and agribusiness are important to the national economy. The government controls several industrial sectors, including railroads, electricity, aircraft, and telecommunications.
A move toward privatizing these industries has been under way since the early s. Although the country traditionally took a protectionist stance toward trade and did not play a major role in the world economy, this has changed with the opening of markets through the European Economic Community and the Common Market.
Foreign trade grew during the s, under de Gaulle, and by the mids, France was the fourth largest exporter in the world. Most exports Men working at a vineyard in France. French wine is a source of national pride and an important part of both simple and elaborate meals. During the economic crisis of the s, the balance of trade favored imports, but in recent years exports have grown. The major exports are manufactured goods, including cars and luxury items such as clothing, perfume, and jewelry.
Wheat and dairy products are also major exports. The country imports raw materials such as oil and agricultural products, as well as machinery, chemicals, and iron and steel products. Employment is categorized by the eight PCS professions and socioprofessional categories: While the nation had a large agricultural population well into the twentieth century, only 3 percent of the people now work in that sector, although 10 percent of the population works in either agriculture or agribusiness.
Unemployment almost 12 percent in is higher among women and youth. Labor unions are strong. The current thirty-nine-hour workweek will fall to thirty-five hours in Social Stratification Classes and Castes. France is a class-stratified society whose middle class did not develop significantly until the s.
Historically, society was divided among the nobility, the bourgeoisiethe peasants, and the urban proletariat. The French system was the basis for much of Karl Marx's analysis of class struggles during the nineteenth century. The dominant class now is referred to as the bourgeoisie, although this term is difficult to define. Primarily, this class is considered to be the group that controls education and industry.
A major source of debate is the issue of social mobility for people of different social origins. Statistics indicate that there is still a strong tendency for children to remain in the occupational class of their parents.
For instance, inalmost 50 percent of the children of workers became workers; only 9 percent of them became elite workers. Fifty-six percent of the children of elite workers became elite workers.
The school system is blamed for the lack of social mobility. Symbols of Social Stratification. Social stratification has two main axes: The urban upper class generally has ties to provincial seats of power.
The bourgeoisie establish the major tenets of good taste and refinement, of being "civilized. Symbols of a higher class position include knowing not only about fine art but about the newest trends in avant-garde art, understanding and being able to purchase fine wines, and dressing with understatement while revealing refined aesthetic sensibilities.
Class consciousness is very strong. France operates under the constitution of the Fifth Republic, which was established in The government is highly centralized, although the act of decentralization transferred more power to the regions and communes. Paris is the capital city. The administration of the governmental system is organized through the levels of nation, region, department, arrondissement, canton, and commune.
The commune is the smallest administrative level. This system of political administration dates back to the French Revolution. The state controls several state-owned companies in the areas of transportation, energy, and communications. Thirty percent of the workforce is employed by the state. The state bureaucracy is complex and is run by an administrative elite trained at the National School of Administration ENA.
The executive branch includes the president and the prime minister. The president is elected for a seven-year term by popular vote.
The prime minister is appointed by the president and serves as head of the government. In recent years, a form of political "cohabitation" has developed, in which the president and prime minister come from different political parties. The prime minister selects the ministers and secretaries of state, with approval by the president.
The twenty-two metropolitan regions, which recently received a formal role in government, are each composed of several departments. A region is headed by a regional prefect and served by elected regional council members who represent the departments.
The regional council elects a president of the council. The department is headed by a prefect, and each canton elects a council member to serve at that level. Communes elect a mayor and a municipal council.
There are a little over 36, communes, and their populations can range in size from under one thousand to that of a large city. The vast majority of communes are in the countryside.
Leadership and Political Officials. France is politically divided between the right and the left. There are five major political parties.
The Communist Party was formed in Political leaders rise to power by gaining election at the local level, and then accruing more political titles. It is possible for a politician to hold more than one office at different levels simultaneously, and this is a common method for gaining political support. Election to office depends on social networks, as well as on the personal charisma of the politician. The concept of "legitimacy" is crucial; to be viewed as a legitimate candidate is to have local roots and a strong social network.
A successful politician must make good use of symbolism and ritual in order to embody various ideals. A high degree of formality is associated with political office, and interactions with elected officials require correct etiquette. One should, for instance, address a mayor as Monsieur or Madame le Mayor. Social Problems and Control. The police are a noticeable presence, particularly in urban areas and transport centers such as airports and subway stations.
Visibly armed, they have the right to stop any person to demand to see documents of identity. The police force is divided between those who work for the minister of the interior and those who work for the minister of defense gendarmes. There is also a National Security Police force CRS that is called in during demonstrations and strikes, which occur frequently.
An important form of political protest, demonstrations often disrupt urban streets and highways. Labor unions are strong, and striking workers regularly stop social services, such as trash pickup and public transportation, and access to public buildings, such as museums.
Major social problems include AIDS, homelessness, and terrorism. The rate of violent crimes such as homicide is low.
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Terrorist attacks and bombings occur randomly, if infrequently and were at their height most recently during the Gulf War. The National Security Police justify their strong military presence as a deterrent to terrorism.
The president is the commander in chief of the military, and the minister of defense reports directly to the president. France has an army, navy, and air force. France was involved in several armed conflicts during the twentieth century. After the first and second world wars, it was involved in colonial wars in Algeria and Indochina.
The draft is being phased out and will disappear in Universal compulsory military service for a period of at least sixteen months has been mandatory for all eighteen-year-old males and marked an important rite of passage into adulthood. Social Welfare and Change Programs There is an elaborate social welfare program.
The social security system was formed in It is funded not by the state but by employers and workers directly. There are several plans, which vary with one's level of employment and professional status. A minimum level of income is assured for the unemployed and destitute under the RMI Revenue Minimum d'Insertinthe unemployment assistance payment that is paid for through taxation.
Benefits of the social security system include family allowances paid per childinfant allowances for pregnant women and newborns, single-parent supplements, benefits for sickness and disability, and unemployment insurance. Nongovernmental Organizations and Other Associations About half the people belong to a voluntary association, including political parties, and there areassociations. The Law of Associations regulates noneconomic activities such as sports clubs, cultural groups, and other clubs.
There are clubs for immigrants, the elderly, youth, and leisure activities. Much of civic life is organized through associations. Peasant households traditionally had a strict gender division of labor Architectural view of Pierrefont Castle, a reminder of the wars that have punctuated French history.
Husband and wife generally worked together, sometimes participating in different tasks related to agricultural labor. The degree to which gender segregation in daily life was upheld varied by region. In general, women carried out domestic tasks of housekeeping, food preparation, and child care; however, they also were involved in farm labor, such as harvesting and tending young animals. With the growth of industrialization, family farms involved much less cooperation between husband and wife in economic activities.
A separation of the domestic sphere from the place of work and the growth of wage earning changed the household division of labor. Women worked outside the home as washerwomen, factory workers, and domestics. In bourgeois families in the nineteenth century, husbands controlled wealth and their wives were dependent on them, having limited autonomy in the raising of the children. Today, almost half of all workers are female and the dual-career family is becoming the norm.
Women continue to face inequalities in the job market, with lower wages than men for comparable work and more difficult career paths. Women are rare in the highest-paid professions and dominate in clerical work, social work, and primary teaching. There have been proposals for a "maternal wage" that would compensate housewives for their labor.
The Relative Status of Women and Men. The Napoleonic Code of denied power to women in marriage, and women did not gain the right to vote until Only in the s did wives gain the right to open bank accounts or work without the husband's permission. The Badinter Law of established equal rights for women in marriage. The feminist movement has slowly made advances but continues to struggle.
The degree to which farm women have lower status than males is a subject of debate. Economic and cultural factors influence the power of women at the level of the family and community.
Marriage, Family, and Kinship Marriage. Marriage rates and age at marriage are related to socioeconomic class and region.
Overall, the marriage rate is declining and the age at marriage is rising. The average age of marriage for men is twenty-nine, and that for women is twenty-seven. Women tend to marry later when they seek higher education. Rural male celibacy has been associated with rural-urban migration since the s.
Geographic homogamy is a strong factor in marriage: Over half of all marriages involve partners from the same department. There is also a high level of religious homogamy. The divorce rate has increased in recent years, especially since a law that made the process easier and faster. One in three marriages ends in divorce. All marriages are sanctioned by a civil ceremony in the town hall. Religious ceremonies must follow the civil ceremony, so that frequently wedding parties make the trip between mayor's office and the church.
Payment for the weddings of young people is most often divided equally between the families of the bride and the groom. There has been a rise in cohabitation for unmarried couples. A recent law permitting legal unions that are not marriages for couples has given legal status to cohabitating couples, including homosexual couples. The PACS pacte d'association civile et solidaire law, passed inset up an intermediate union between marriage and cohabitation.
A pacte is easier to dissolve than a marriage. This includes all persons living in the same dwelling. These persons are not necessarily related. There has been a rise in single-person households since the s. Although older women may be very influential behind the scenes, they wield little legal authority in property and marriage matters. Marriage, Family, and Kinship Marriage.
Although the different regions and religions have considerable variety in marital arrangements, the arranged marriage is a traditional feature of virtually every community; today, except among the urban middle classes, it still is widely practiced.
Marriages that are not arranged by the couple's parents, often termed "love marriages," are looked down on as impulsive acts of passion. The more usual style of marriage unites a couple who have barely met beforehand. It is through the institution of arranged marriage and its correlate, caste endogamy, that parents exercise control not only over their adult children but also over the social structure and the caste system.
Generally, the country has two main types of marriage: Many south Indian castes also permit uncle-niece marriage. Maharashtra state has intermediate forms. The residential unit is normally the household, but this unit varies widely in its structure, from housing a large extended family of three or four generations to a household made up of a lone widow.
In large buildings with many rooms, it is common to find a number of discrete households, especially in cities; each of these households may be distinguished by its use of a common cooking hearth and perhaps by depending on a common source of funds.
In crowded urban conditions, each room may constitute a separate household, as may each small grass hut in a roadside encampment.
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The written will is largely unknown except in modern urban areas. The tradition has always been that sons inherit property and status from their fathers and that daughters can hope to receive a dowry at the time of their marriage.
However, there is much local and caste variation in precisely who inherits. In some groups, the oldest son inherits everything and then makes an accommodation for his younger brother and provides his sisters' dowries. In other groups, the brothers may inherit equal shares, except that the youngest brother inherits the house. Other patterns occur, but in general, although modern law states that daughters should inherit equally with their brothers, this almost never happens except in Islamic families.
The largest kin-based group is the caste, of which there are several thousand. A caste is an endogamous unit with its own traditional occupation and rank. It is made up of a number of clans, which are also kin-based but are exogamous and often intermarrying units. The clan in turn is made up of smaller and more localized groups called lineages, which are also exogamous.
A caste may include hundreds of lineages of varying size and status, depending on how many generations of depth they claim. Major lineages commonly are composed of minor lineages, but the smallest are so localized that they are made up of a number of neighboring and closely related extended or nuclear families. Thus, a caste is endogamous, but all the kin-based units below it are exogamous and follow rigid rules about which clans or lineages are allowed to inter-marry.
Infant care is almost completely the responsibility of mothers, older siblings, and grandmothers. When the mother works in the fields or a factory, a grandmother commonly is the chief provider of daytime care for an infant. After about the age of two, older sisters spend much of their time in this activity.
Child Rearing and Education. Inthe government spent over 2 percent of its resources on education. Although the government's goal of eradicating illiteracy among people age fifteen to thirty five by the year has not been achieved, there has been a steady decrease in illiterary since the late nineteenth century. Among people above age six in52 percent were literate, a 9 percent increase from Kerala state has the highest rates of literacy.
However, nationally there remains a great sexual disparity: While 64 percent of men were literate inonly 39 percent of women were. The central government is more interested in military power than in literacy, and millions of rural parents, especially Muslims, feel that the schooling of girls is a waste of time and money.
Only the establishment of sixteen as the minimum legal age for marriage has made it possible for many girls to get their parents' reluctant permission to attend school. While in earlier times missionary-run schools were important, especially in rural areas, in the last century local and state schools have educated the vast majority of students.
Over the last half century universal school attendance for eight years, equal opportunities for female students, relevant vocational training, and improvement in the quality of classes and textbooks have been national goals, with an emphasis on free and compulsory education for everybody from ages six to fourteen.
However, there has been a recent growth of privately run schools, many associated with religious organizations, which tend to do a better job but commonly charge fees. There were universities inincluding thirteen central universities which are the oldest, best known, and best funded. The rest are run by state governments or religious foundations. Funding, hiring professors, and setting educational standards in all universities are centralized through the University Grants Commission, which was established in About a hundred colleges throughout the country have an autonomous status, but others are branches of major universities within their states.
In there were 6. There are institutions that grant degrees in engineering and technology and 1, that award diplomas. Adult education programs combat illiteracy, lack of knowledge about family planning, and inadequate understanding of new farming techniques.
Such programs tend to be more accessible in urban areas. A major hurdle has been the language of university instruction. The central universities generally teach in English and produce graduates with internationally acceptable credentials, but most of the smaller universities teach in the local state language so that their students' skills are not easily transferable even to other parts of the country.
The opportunities for graduate study overseas are much reduced for this category of students, and even the acquisition of up-to-date textbooks can be a problem. Etiquette Indians are usually very hospitable even when poor and go to considerable lengths to make a visitor feel comfortable. Women normally adopt a deferential attitude toward men, especially to their husbands and fathers-in-law. All the people tend to show deference to religious figures and government officials. A woman decorates the streets with vibrantly colored rice powder paintings during a festival in Madurai, India.
In the census, 82 percent of the population was enumerated as Hindu. However, 12 percent of Indians are Muslim, a fact that makes this one of the largest Islamic nations in the world. The next largest religious category is Christians, who make up only over 2 percent of the population and are closely followed in number by Sikhs. The only other groups of numerical significance are the Buddhists less than 1 percent and the Jains less than half a percent.
Rituals and Holy Places. The thousands of rituals and millions of shrines, temples, and other holy places of many faiths defy categorization here. For Hindus, large pilgrimage temples are the holiest centers, whereas for Muslims the tombs of saints pir are the most important.
For Buddhists, many of them overseas visitors, the sites associated with the Buddha are crucial. Death and the Afterlife. While Muslims, Jews, and Christians pray that their individual souls will go to a paradise after death, Hindu ideas about the afterlife are very different. Muslims, Jews, and Christians bury their dead in cemeteries, as do most Zoroastrians today. However, Zoroastrians are Women walk on a trail through drying chilies in the Bundi District of Rajasthan.
Most Hindu communities have a fundamental belief in reincarnation. The basic idea is that one's soul can be reincarnated for an unknown number of rebirths and that what the soul is to be reincarnated into depends on the balance of one's sins and good deeds in past lives.
This belief provides the justification for the inequities of the caste system: One is born into a particular caste, whether high or low, as a result of the accumulated virtues or sins of one's soul in a previous life.
One can never hope to move out of one's caste in this life but may do so in the next reincarnation. Particularly evil individuals may be reincarnated as animals. Hindus normally cremate the dead on a pile of logs, but the very poor may resort to burial. Extremely saintly figures may be buried in a sitting position, as are members of the Lingayat sect. Medicine and Health Care India has a tradition of medical healing, teaching, and research that goes back more than two thousand years to the two basic medical treatises written by Charaka and Sushruta.
Today the country has four major medical systems as well as dozens of localized and tribal ones that depend on herbal treatments. The oldest of the four systems is still widely followed under the name of Ayurvedameaning "science of long life". It is highly developed, with its own hospitals, clinics, pharmaceutical factories, and medical textbooks.
It depends primarily on non invasive herbal treatments. The diagnosis and treatment emphasize a holistic approach. Sidda is a distinct tradition that developed in south India and follows principles of physiology close to those of Ayurveda. Diagnosis depends on a careful reading of the pulse. Treatment is mostly herbal and psychological.
A third medical tradition is called Unani. This system came to India with Muslim travelers and was developed under the patronage of the Mughals.
It emphasizes holistic diagnosis and treatment, but the theory of human physiology is distinct. All three of these systems attribute disease to an imbalance between underlying constituents. The fourth and most widely favored system is biomedicine, or scientific medicine. It has been used in the cities for three centuries and is practiced in the best hospitals and training colleges. India has about medical colleges. Public health is a major concern of every state government because of the continuing incidence of epidemic diseases, high rates of infant mortality, and the need for family planning usually sterilization to control the growth of the population.
The Arts and Humanities Support for the Arts. Historically, the arts flourished under the support of two main categories of patron: Over the last two centuries, the patronage of British residents and art collectors has become important. In independent India, a national art institute, the Lalit Kala Akademi, promotes the visual arts through lectures, prizes, exhibitions, and publications. The government supports the Sahitya Akademi, which was set up in to promote excellence in literature; the National School of Drama ; and the Sangeet Natak Akademiwhich promotes dance.
India has some of the earliest literature in the world, beginning with Sanskrit, which may be the oldest literature in any Indo-European language. The Rig Veda is the oldest of the four Vedaslong religious texts composed in an early form of Sanskrit some time late in the second century B.
It was followed by three other Vedasall liturgical in character, and then by the principal Upanishads during the eighth through fifth centuries B. The first significant secular document in Sanskrit was a sophisticated grammar that fixed the structure of the language, probably in the fourth century B. Then, during the reign of Chandragupta Maurya, the text of the great epic Mahabharatathe world's longest poem, was established around B.
Both epics incorporated material from extant folklore. By roughly the third century B. It was soon to become the most influential body of literature in the eastern half of Asia and has remained so to the present day, especially in Chinese and Japanese translations.
In that era the image of the social structure of India was codified by two books. During the late fourth century Kautilya, who is said to have been the prime minister Chanakya, wrote the Arthasastraa Treatise on the Goodwhich was rediscovered in Shortly thereafter came the compilation of Manu's Laws Manusmrti.
This treatise on religious law and social obligation described in detail a society, possibly a utopian one, in which there were four caste blocks, the varnaeach of which had its own occupation, status, and religious duties.
This book continued to exercise an immeasurable influence on Indian society for the next two thousand years and the varna model is still a popular image of Hindu caste society. While its history is shrouded, it set the stage for an outpouring of medieval poetry in Tamil, a Dravidian language. Some of this work was devotional, but much was secular in its appeal, including the first known work of Indian women writers. The most famous example of this poetry was the Purananuruan anthology of four hundred poems praising Tamil rulers.
Equally important, the Kural was a collection of moral maxims compiled by Tiruvalluvar in perhaps the third and fourth centuries. It has been likened to a Tamil Koran. At about the same time, there was a flowering of Sanskrit drama in the northerly parts of India. In the fourth or fifth century lived the greatest Sanskrit poet, Kalidasa.
The best known plays that have survived from this era are Shakuntala and The Little Clay Cartthe former written by Kalidasa and the latter a comedy also perhaps written by him. During the Middle Ages, science and philosophy flourished in Sanskrit texts.
Perhaps the best known, if the least scientific, work was the Kama Sutra or a treatise on love by Vatsyayana, who wrote it in a legal style of Sanskrit in about the third century.
The Middle Ages witnessed an outpouring of religious and philosophical literature not just in Sanskrit, which was still the prime liturgical and scholarly language, but also in a number of regional languages.
Logic, metaphysics, devotional poetry, and commentary developed over the centuries. In the period — there appeared an important new philosophical literature in Karnataka, beginning with the Kavirajamarga.
This was Jain A farmer leans under the burden of a harvest as it is carried to the top of a building in Zanskar Valley, Ladakh. At the end of the twelfth century Lilavati was written by Nemichandra, the first novel in that language.
Culture of Sudan - history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family
It was followed by other allegorical novels, as well as Kesiraja's grammar of medieval Kannada. Aroundanother Dravidian literature, in Telugu, made its debut with the grammarian Nannaya Bhatta and the poet Nannichoda. At about that time the Malayalam language became differentiated from Tamil. A century later the oldest known manuscript was written in Bengali.