Ocean County New Jersey
n3ws.info into- .. /tuntut-kenaikan-upah-serikat-buruh-tangerang-raya-bakal-turun-ke- jalan n3ws.info chiimwng -news/promotoria-solidaria-llevo-una-tarde-de-alegria-al- parque-los-leones. Director: Raya Martin Nosso Século(Our Century/Mer Dare) They are marked with dates, thereby providing a timeline. .. Hamaca paraguaya / Paraguayan Hammock (Paz Encina, pero sí retazos de un cine imposible, fuera de toda norma, que ponían de manifiesto el impudor y la alegría de rodar. Raqchi to Abra la Raya. CUZCO for visiting the isolated, untouristed fortress of Kuélap (p), dating from AD. , and Hammock or cabin space is readily .. 83). As part of the pillage, the Chileans made off with thousands of tomes from the National Hotel Alegría, Lima ) Behemoth agency offers all the.
Pero a medio camino, en los departamentos del fondo, habitados por la servidumbre, se detuvo. La puerta del saloncito de Mrs. No vio a Orlando. All this he felt as the great rings flashed in the water and then something pressed his hair — which, perhaps, accounts for his seeing nothing more likely to be of use to a historian.
And in  truth, his mind was such a welter of opposites — of the night and the blazing candles, of the shabby poet and the great Queen, of silent fields and the clatter of serving men — that he could see nothing; or only a hand. By the same showing, the Queen herself can have seen only a head. But if it is possible from a hand to deduce a body, informed with all the attributes of a great Queen, her crabbedness, courage, frailty, and terror, surely a head can be as fertile, looked down upon from a chair of state by a lady whose eyes were always, if the waxworks at the Abbey are to be trusted, wide open.
The long, curled hair, the dark head bent so reverently, so innocently before her, implied a pair of the finest legs that a young nobleman has ever stood upright upon; and violet eyes; and a heart of gold; and loyalty and manly charm — all qualities which the old woman loved the more the more they failed her.
For she was growing old and worn and bent before her time. The sound of cannon was always in her ears. She saw always the glistening poison drop and the long stiletto.
Porque iba envejeciendo, cansada y en- corvada a destiempo. Borges 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 As she sat at table she listened; she heard the guns in the Channel; she dreaded — was that a curse, was that a whisper?
Innocence, simplicity, were all the more dear to her for the dark back- ground she set them against. He had been kissed by a queen without knowing it. At any rate, two years of this quiet country life had not passed, and Orlando had written no more perhaps than twenty tragedies and a dozen his- tories and a score of sonnets when a message came that he was to attend the Queen at Whitehall. She was sitting bolt upright beside the fire. Was she matching her speculations the other night with the truth now visible?
Did she find her guesses justified? Eyes, mouth, nose, breast, hips, hands — she ran them over; her lips twitched visibly as she looked; but when she saw his legs she laughed out loud.
Estaba sentada muy tiesa, junto al fuego. Borges 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 gentleman. The young man withstood her gaze blushing only a damask rose as became him. Strength, grace, romance, folly, poetry, youth — she read him like a page. Instantly she plucked a ring from her finger the joint was swollen rather and as she fitted it to his, named him her Treasurer and Steward; next hung about him chains of office; and bidding him bend his knee, tied round it at the slenderest part the jewelled order of the Garter.
Nothing after that was denied him. When she drove in state he rode at her carriage door. She sent him to Scotland on a sad embassy to the unhappy Queen. He was about to sail for the Polish — wars when she recalled him. For how could she bear to think of that tender flesh torn and that curly head rolled in the dust?
She kept him with her. He rose, half suffocated from the embrace. For the old woman loved him. Ya estaba por embarcarse a las guerras polacas cuando lo hizo llamar. Porque la vieja estaba enamorada. Borges 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 And the Queen, who knew a man when she saw one, though not, it is said, in the usual way, plotted for him a splendid ambitious career.
Lands were given him, houses assigned him. He was to be the son of her old age; the limb of her infirmity; the oak tree on which she leant her degradation. She croaked out these promises and strange domineering tendernesses they were at Richmond now sitting bolt upright in her stiff brocades by the fire which, however high they piled it, never kept her warm.
Meanwhile, the long winter months drew on. Every tree in the Park was lined with frost. The river ran sluggishly. One day when the snow was on the ground and the dark panelled rooms were full of shadows and the stags were barking in the Park, she saw in the mirror, which she kept for fear of spies always by her, through the door, which she kept for fear of murderers always open, a boy — could it be Orlando?
Snatching at her golden-hilted sword she struck violently at the mirror. The age was the Elizabethan; their morals were not ours; nor their poets; nor their climate; nor their vegetables even. The weather itself, the heat and cold of summer and winter, was, we may believe, of another temper altogether.
The brilliant amorous day was divided as sheerly from the night as land from water. Le dieron tierras, le asigna- ron casas. Mientras tanto, los largos meses de in- vierno se arrastraban.
Borges 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 Sunsets were redder and more intense; dawns were whiter and more auroral. Of our crepuscular half-lights and lingering twilights they knew nothing.
The rain fell vehemently, or not at all. The sun blazed or there was darkness. Tr a n s l a t i n g t h i s t o t h e spiritual regions as their wont is, the poets sang beautifully how roses fade and petals fall. The moment is brief they sang; the moment is over; one long night is then to be slept by all.
As for using the artifices of the greenhouse or conservator y to prolong or preserve these fresh pinks and roses, that was not their way. The withered intricacies and ambiguities of our more gradual and doubtful age were unknown to them. The flower bloomed and faded. The sun rose and sank. The lover loved and went. And what the poets said in rhyme, the young translated into practice. Girls were roses, and their seasons were short as the flowers.
Plucked they must be before nightfall; for the day was brief and the day was all. Thus, if Orlando followed the leading of the climate, of the poets, of the age itself, and plucked his flower in the window-seat even with the snow on the ground and the Queen vigilant in the corridor, we can scarcely bring ourselves to blame him.
He was young; he was boyish; he did but as nature bade him do. La violencia era todo. Las muchachas eran rosas, y sus estacio- nes eran breves como las de las flores.
Borges 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 name was. It may have been Doris, Chloris, Delia, or Diana, for he made rhymes to them all in turn; equally, she may have been a court lady, or some serving maid. Here, indeed, we lay bare rudely, as a biographer may, a curious trait in him, to be accounted for, perhaps, by the fact that a certain grandmother of his had worn a smock and carried milkpails.
Some grains of the Kentish or Sussex earth were mixed with the thin, fine fluid which came to him from Normandy. He held that the mixture of brown earth and blue blood was a good one.
Certain it is that he had always a liking for low company, especially for that of lettered people whose wits so often keep them under, as if there were the sympathy of blood between them.
Hence, he began going frequently to Wapping Old Stairs and the beer gardens at night, wrapped in a grey cloak to hide the star at his neck and the garter at his knee. Especially he loved to hear them volley forth their songs of the Azores, while the parrakeets, which they had brought from those parts, pecked at the rings in their ears, Reina Isabel. Tosco, sin pulimento, naturalmente bas- to.
Que no se ajusta a las reglas del arte. Borges 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 tapped with their hard acquisitive beaks at the rubies on their fingers, and swore as vilely as their masters.
The women were scarcely less bold in their speech and less free in their manners than the birds. T h e y p e r c h e d o n h i s k n e eflung their arms round his neck and, guessing that something out of the common lay hid beneath his duffle cloak, were quite as eager to comeatthetruthofthematterasOrlandohimself.
Nor was opportunity lacking. The river was astir early and late with barges, wherries, and craft of all description. Every day sailed to sea some fine ship bound for the Indies; now and again another blackened and ragged with hairy unknown men on board crept painfully to anchor. Such indeed was the adventure that befel Orlando, Sukey, and the Earl of Cumberland.
The day was hot; their loves had been active; they had fallen asleep among the rubies. Late that night the Earl, whose fortunes were much bound up in the Spanish ventures, came to check the booty alone with a lantern. He flashed the light on a barrel. He started back with an oath. Twined about the cask two spirits lay sleeping. Juguetear, retozar, mariposear, coquetear, darse el gusto, complacer, indulge. Borges 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 a phantom sprung from the graves of drowned sailors to upbraid him.
Twelve poor old women of the parish today drink tea and tonight bless his Lordship for a roof above their heads; so that illicit love in a treasure ship — but we omit the moral. Soon, however, Orlando grew tired, not only of the discomfort of this way of life, and of the crabbed streets of the neighbourhood, but of the primitive manners of the people. For it has to be remembered that  crime and poverty had none of the attraction for the Elizabethans that they have for us.
Best Rate Guaranteed
But when he had heard a score of ti- mes how Jakes had lost his nose and Sukey her honour — and they told the stories admirably, it must be admitted — he began to be a little weary of the repetition, for a nose can only be cut off in one way and maidenhood lost in another or so it seemed to him —whereas the arts and the sciences had a diversity about them which stirred his curiosity profoundly.
So, always keeping them in happy memory, he left off frequenting the beer gardens and the skittle alleys, hung his grey cloak in his wardrobe, let his star shine at his neck and his garter twinkle at his knee, and appeared once more at the Court of King James.
Hizo un voto de arrepentimiento.
Borges 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 He was young, he was rich, he was handsome. No one could have been received with greater acclamation than he was. It is certain indeed that many ladies were ready to show him their favours.
The names of three at least were freely coupled with his in marriage —Clorinda, Favilla, Euphrosyne — so he called them in his sonnets. To take them in order; Clorinda was a sweet-mannered gentle lady enough — indeed Orlando was greatly taken with her for six months and a half; but she had white eyelashes and could not bear the sight of blood. She was much under the influence of the Priests too, and stinted her underlinen in order to give to the poor.
She took it on her to reform Orlando of his sins, which sickened him, so that he drew back from the marriage, and did not much regret it when she died soon after of the small-pox. Favilla, who comes next, was of a different sort altogether. She was the daughter of a poor Somersetshire gentleman; who, by sheer assiduity and the use of her eyes had worked her way up at court, where her address in horsemanship, her fine instep, and her grace in dancing won the admiration of all.
Orlando, who was a passionate lover of animals, now noticed that her teeth were crooked, and the two front turned inward, which, he said, is  a sure sign of a perverse and, cruel disposition in woman, and so broke the engagement that very Era joven, era rico, era her- moso.
Es indudable que muchas damas esta- ban listas a concederle su favor. Una liebre asada que sirvieron en la mesa de su padre la hizo desvanecer. L o s c u r a s l a g o b e r n a b a n y economizaban su ropa interior para socorrer a los pobres.
Favila, la siguiente, era muy distinta. STOP 2 a archaic: Borges 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 night for ever. Thethird,Euphrosyne,wasbyfarthemost serious of his flames. She was fair, florid, and a trifle phlegmatic. She spoke Italian well, had a perfect set of teeth in the supper jaw, though those on the lower were slightly discoloured.
She was never without a whippet or spaniel at her knee; fed them with white bread from her own plate; sang sweetly to the virginals; and was never dressed before mid-day owing to the extreme care she took of her person. In short, she would have made a perfect wife for such a nobleman as Orlando, and matters had gone so far that the lawyers on both sides were busy with covenants, jointures, settlements, messuages, tenements, and whatever is needed before one great fortune can mate with another when, with the suddenness and severity that then marked the English climate, came the Great Frost.
The Great Frost was, historians tell us, the most severe that has ever visited these islands. Birds froze in mid-air and fell like stones to the ground.
At Norwich a young countrywoman started to cross the road in her usual robust health and was seen by the o n l o o k e r s to turn visibly to powder and be blown in a puff of dust over the roofs as the icy blast struck her at the street corner. The mortality among sheep and cattle was enormous. Corpses froze and could not be drawn from the sheets. It was no uncommon sight to come upon a whole herd of swine frozen immovable upon the road. Borges 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 The fields were full of shepherds, ploughmen, teams of horses, and little bird-scaring boys all struck stark in the act of the moment, one with his hand to his nose, another with the bottle to his lips, a third with a stone raised to throw at the raven who sat, as if stuffed, upon the hedge within a yard of him.
The severity of the frost was so extraordinary that a kind of petrifaction sometimes ensued; and it was commonly supposed that the great increase of rocks in some parts of Derbyshire was due to no eruption, for there was none, but to the solidification of unfortunate wayfarers who had been turned literally to stone where they stood. The Church could give little help in the matter, and though some landowners had these relics blessed, the most part preferred to use them either as landmarks, scratching-posts for sheep, or, when the form of the stone allowed, drinking troughs for cattle, which purposes they serve, admirably for the most part, to this day.
But while the country people suffered the extremity of want, and the trade of the country was at a standstill, London enjoyed a carnival of the utmost brilliancy. The Court was at Greenwich, and the new King  seized the opportunity that his coronation gave him to curry favour with the citizens. He directed that the river, which was frozen to a depth of twenty feet and more for six or seven miles on either side, should be swept, decorated and given all the semblance of a park or pleasure ground, with arbours, mazes, alleys, drinking booths, etc.
For himself and the courtiers, he reserved a certain space immediately opposite the Palacegates;which,railedofffromthepublic onlybyasilkenrope,becameatoncethecen- tre of the most brilliant society in England. Great statesmen, in their beards and ruffs, despatched affairs of state under the crimson awning of the Royal Pagoda.
En glorietas rayadas coronadas de plumas de avestruz, los militares concertaban la conquista del moro y stark 1 desolate, bare a stark landscape. Yerto, rigido rail 1 furnish with a rail or rails. Borges 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 ostrich feathers.
Admirals strode up and down the narrow pathways, glass in hand, sweeping the horizon and telling stories of the north-west passage and the Spanish Armada.
Lovers dallied upon divans spread with sables. Frozen roses fell in showers when the Queen and her ladies walked abroad. Here and there burnt vast bonfires of cedar and oak wood, lavishly salted, so that the flames were of green, orange, and purple fire. But however fiercely they burnt, the heat was not enough to melt the ice which, though of singular transparency, was yet of the hardness of steel.
So clear indeed was it that there could be seen, congealed at a depth of several feet, here a porpoise, there a flounder. Shoals of eels lay motionless in a tran- ce, but whether their state was one of death or merely of suspended animation which the warmth would revive puzzled the philosophers.
Near London Bridge, where the river had frozen to a depth of some twenty fathoms, a wrecked wherry boat was plainly visible, lying on the bed of the river where it had sunk last autumn, overladen with apples. Love Poetry Veinte poemas de alllor y una canci6n desesperada I undertook the greatest departure from myself: It remains a best-seller to this day; and in English its enigmatic poems of love have been'translated, and retranslated, by Tarn, Walsh, and Merwin, among others.
Yet the initial reaction of readers and critics was not so positive: The problem at the time was that Neruda poetized not love, but sex. Or so it seemed. In fact, the original title he had proposed for the book was almost clinical in its precision: Between the public taste of today and that of there is a considerable difference. Therefore, before attempting to appraise the literary qualities of the work, we must take into account its initial shock value, its sensationalism in its original cultural context.
We know now that some of the love poems had been rejected by the literary journals of the time and that the book itself J 17 Love Poetry was turned down by Nascimento, then Chile's most successful publisher. We also know that such disapproval, according to the bohemian standard of the time, might be advantageously provoked: Yet Neruda, despite his decadent posturing, did not provoke nor exploit disapproval of his love poetry.
On the contrary, he privately, and determinedly, solicited support for its publication from Santiago's principal literary figures; the critic Alone, the poet Pedro Prado, and the novelist Eduardo Barrios. Neruda, then only nineteen, was confident of the value of his new poetry and anxious to get it into print.
His haste and anxiety might seem difficult to understand, for this was not his first incursion into literature. He had been writing rather regularly for C laridad the anarchist publication of the Chilean student federation modeled after Clarte the internationalist review of Henri Barbusse and Anatole Franceand had even enjoyed a certain succes d'estime with the publication of Crepusculario a collection of his youthful verses When his love poems were rejected he was just beginning to establish himself in Santiago as a local figure of note.
And, when they were finally published he emerged on the literary scene as a major new poetic voice in the Spanish language. How did this come about? The biographical data concerning Neruda's formative years is not terribly revealing. Born in Parral inas Neftali Ricardo Reyes Basoalto, the son of a railroad worker, and raised in Temuco, a rough-and-tumble frontier town in the south of Chile, he arrived in Santiago in as a scholarship student to specialize in French at the Instituto Pedag6gico of the University of Chile.
His goal was modest: Like his "maestra rural," Lucila Godoy Alcayaga, later known to literature as Gabriela Mistral, he adopted a pen name, Pablo Neruda, as much to mask his humble origins as to establish a literary identity for himself.
Understandably, his early attempts at literature were for the most part bookish 18 Veinte poemas de amor y una cancion desesperada and imitative, respecting the refined aesthetic norms of Hispanic Modernism. Later, as a provincial in the capital, he continued in this same vein, seeming somewhat more affected by the nightlife of metropolitan Santiago than by the formal study of French literature.
His poetry began to reflect this combined cultural experience in an uneven yet routine sort of way. And Crepusculario, his first book, published with woodcuts by his cohorts at Claridad inwas a curious pastiche of compositions as predictable as "EI nuevo soneto -a Helena" New Sonnet to Helenean elegant imitation of Ronsard, and as unusual as "Maestranzas de noche" Arsenal Workers on the Night Shift and "Barrio sin luz" Neighborhood without Electricitypoems which seem to have been conceived as urban nocturnes.
Fueron creadas por mi estas palabras con sangre mia, con dolores mios fueron creadas! Yo 10 comprendo, amigos, yo 10 comprendo todo. Se mezclaron voces ajenas a las mias, yo 10 comprendo, amigos!
These words were created by me with my blood, with my pains they were created! And I understand, friends, I understand it all. Strange voices got mixed in with mine, and I understand it, friends!
To be sure, there are some excellent compositions in Crepusculario, and many have been anthologized, but the book, like its title, belongs to another era, and in the avant-garde literary context of the s it is not distinguished. However, its publication must have been purgative, for, once in print, N eruda seems to have been able to set it behind him and to give himself over almost entirely to a new kind of writing, an appar- 19 Love Poetry ently spontaneous lyricism.
It is with his love poems that he finds a uniquely personal voice. As early as February we find him writing to Alone, the literary critic of Zig Zag, to tell him that he is hard at work on a new book and to ask him to use his influence with the journal's editor, Carlos Acuna, so as to publish "Vaso de amor" Goblet of Lovea composition which later, and with some revisions, would reappear as one of the twenty poems of love Poem XII.
Noteworthy at this time is Neruda's pronounced assurance with regard to this work: I am sending you four poems now. Three I send to you, so that you can read them, only for that.
The other, which is called "Vaso de amor," is the one I would like to be published. It is a question of pride, because Sr. Carlos Acuna didn't want to publish them and nothing of mine will come out in the magazine, with my consent, until these verses appear there.
Please, Alone, reply to me if you receive this and tell me how you feel about it. The magazine Zig Zag also published the poem. The important thing to note with regard to the poet's attitude toward his work at this point is the absolute certainty he has of its quality.
Once the little book of love poems appeared and the hostility of some readers and critics began to manifest itself, Neruda publicly came to its defense, equating its integrity with his own.
In an open letter to Santiago's La Naci6n August 20,he made a kind of exegesis, pompously and with romantic exag: Zig-Zag,p. I undertook the greatest departure from myself: Ten years of solitary labor, exactly half my life, have made diverse rhythms and contrary currents succeed one another in my expression.
Grasping them, weaving them together, without ever finding the endurable element, because it does not exist, there you have my Veinte poemas de amor y una canci6n desesperada.
Disperse as thought in its elusive variation, happy and sad, I have made these poems and I have suffered much in making them.
The wounded artist seeks the compassion of his public. But no does he apologize for the inadequacies of his art, as in Crepusculario. Confident of his achievement, he stresses the difficulty of his craft and the authenticity of his effort. Gone is the Modernist concern with formal perfection. What counts now is the result, the sensation of pure lyricism he was able to achieve in these poems of love.
Traditionally love poetry has equated woman with nature. Neruda took this established mode of comparison and raised it to a cosmic level, making woman into a veritable force of the universe.
By way of illustration, let us examine the mechanism of the explicit metaphor of the introductory poem, a metaphor as powerful today as it was fifty years ago when it served to introduce the theme of the book and to set its tone: Body of woman, white hills, white thighs, you look like the world in your attitude of giving. Noteworthy here is the use of the alexandrine, a traditional verse form, to modulate the otherwise understated metaphor. The alexandrine, a fourteen-syllable line and the standard 21 Love Poetry vehicle of serious narrative poetry in Spanish since the later Middle Ages, had been given new life by the Modernists who found that by changing the distribution of measured accents the stately verse could be made quite supple.
The first line is melodic and iterative, its accentuated pauses dividing the verse in three parts: The resultant metaphor, once completed, is far more powerful than the simile on which it is based because it is the reader who must imaginatively supply the link between the two things being related: A proposition that would be ridiculously hyperbolic were it expressed directly. Neruda is short-circuiting words and meanings in order to create a highly charged contemporary stil nuovo in these modern poems of love.
In Poem XIII the discontinuous and irregular line of free verse combined with ellipsis is skillfully used to charge the strophe with a sense of action: He ida marcando con cruces de fuego el atlas blanco de tu cuerpo. Mi boca era una arafia que cruzaba escondiendose. En ti, detras de ti, temerosa, sedien tao I have gone along marking with crosses of fire the white atlas of your body. My mouth was a spider that would move about hiding itself.
In you, behind you, fearful, thirsty. Although the book's explicitness may have shocked the sensibility of some readers inin Neruda's more immediate cultural context, the anarchist milieu of the militant student groups of the twenties, a frank attitude toward sex was the norm rather than the exception.
Claridad was then championing a free love movement of sorts, and in Julyin an article aptly titled "Sexo" SexNeruda himself unambiguously dealt with the issue: He is strong and young.
The ardent flash of sex courses through his veins in electric shocks. The pleasure has now been discovered and it attracts him as the simplest and most marvelous thing that he has ever been shown. Earlier he was taught to hide the filthiness of his groin and his child's face would wrinkle up in an unconscious query. Later a friend revealed to him the secret.
And the solitary pleasure wen t on to corfupt the purity of his soul and to open him up to pleasures hitherto unknown. But that time has passed. Now, strong and young, he hunts for an object in which to empty out his cup of youth.
He is the animal that simply hunts for an outlet for his natural potency. He is the male and life should supply him with the female in whom he can find satisfaction. The article goes on to condemn the system of moral values which serve only to impede the satisfaction of a drive as natural as sex. The free love movement was basically male chauvinist; it hailed the woman as sex-object while piously condemning as bourgeois certain social conventions, especially marriage and chastity.
While still a teenager, Neruda gave poetic form to this blatant new sexism in "Cancion de adios" Goodby Songa poem first published in Claridad in August An anticipa23 Love Poetry tion of the much anthologized "Farewell," this poem is openly addressed to woman as sex-object.
Pregnant, she is destined to be abandoned: Fui tuyo, fuiste mia. Juntos hicimos un recodo en la ruta donde el amor paso.
Til seras del que te arne, del que corte en tu huerto 10 que he sembrado yo. Vengo desde tus brazos. Nose hacia donde voy. Desde tu corazon me dice adios un nifio. Y yo Ie digo adios. I was yours, you were mine. Together we made a bend in the road where love passed by. You will belong to the one who loves you, the one who reaps in your garden what I have planted. I come from your arms. I don't know where I am going. From your heart a child says goodbye to me.
And I say goodbye to him. This poem, in spite of its prosaic diction and its heartless sentimentality, was a favorite of the students of Neruda's generation.
Its refrain "Amo el amor de los marineros que besan y se van" 1 love the love of the sailors who kiss and depart has even passed into Chilean popular culture with the repeated force of a maxim. At this juncture it is well to ask if the outspoken references to sex in Veinte poemas de amor were really so revolutionary after all.
They were and they were not. The deciding factor of course is in the readership, the public to whom they were directed.
Neruda did not care to publish his first love poem, "Vaso de amor," in the anarchist review to which he had ready access, but in Zig Zag a more prestigious family magazine. By the same token he wanted the book to be brought out not by his bohemian friends at Claridad who pad earlier printed 24 Veinte poemas de amor y una cancidn desesperada Crepusculario but by Nascimento, Chile's most respectable publishing house.
Neruda was ambitious; he was looking for a wider audience and recognition. He hoped to reach the readers of traditional poetry, readers who, although initially disturbed by his theme, might ultimately prove responsive to his style. His ambition was not unrealistic, for this is exactly what did happen with Alone and Pedro Prado. In their case, the quality of Neruda's poetry did overcome their original distaste for his treatment of sex.
And so it was with others once the book was in print. Neruda, at twenty, seems to have had an intuitive feel for the "selling" of his literature. From succes d'estime with Crepusculario in to succes de scandale with the love poems inin somewhat less than a year the attention of readers and critics had been effectively focused on the young provincial and his works.
Lionized in formerly hostile Santiago, he soon became the spokesman for the nascent Chilean avant-garde and his poetry was much admired and widely imitated. But it was not studied. In fact, the art of Neruda's love poetry, until quite recently, has not been the object of serious analysis.
Given the lyric intensity of the poetry, such speculation was perhaps not unwarranted. However, over the years Neruda consistently discouraged any and all biographic interpretations. Not untilin a speech at the University of Chile some thirty years after the first publication of the love poems, did the poet publicly refer to their basis in his personal life: In the s, when N eruda achieved international recognition with the publication of Residencia en fa tierra, much was made in Chile over the fact that this composition closely resembled a poern by Tagore.
Accordingly, Neruda added a note to the edition: This has always been publicly and publishedly known. Those resentful souls who have tried to take advantage of this circunlstance during my absence, have fallen into the oblivion they deserve faced by the enduring vitality of this adolescent book.
I had forgotten that many years have passed. It is not that I have forgotten anyone, rather what would be gained with the names I could give you There are two fundamental loves in this book, that which filled my adolescence as a provincial and that which awaited me later in the labyrinth of Santiago. And some eight years later, as Neruda was approaching sixty, he went on to clarify somewhat the evasiveness of the earlier explanation, calling the country girl Marisol and the city girl Marisombra: Marisol is the idyll of the enchanted province, with immense evening stars and dark eyes like the wet sky of Temuco.
She figures, with her happiness and her lively legend, in nearly all the pages surrounded by the 1Vaters of the port and by the half moon over the mountains.
Marisombra is the student of the capital. Gray cap, soft eyes, the constant scent of honeysuckle of our nomadic student love. The physical calm of passionate encounters in the hideaways of the city.
The only trouble with this authorial classification is that it does not correspond to the internal evidence of the poetry. Critics, quite naturally, were quick to point out certain discrepancies.
Poem VI, for example: This poem presents a curious problem. But in an edition of some purloined love letters from Neruda's student days in Santiago was published in Spain. These letters, addressed to Albertina Rosa Azocar Soto, a coed at the Instituto Pedagogico, clarify the biographic circumstances of the poetry.
By all evidence, Neruda and Albertina had an impassioned affair, which for economic and professional reasons could not be consummated in marriage, a kind of working-class neoromantic "impossible love. We now know that it was to her that Neruda wrote in September Little one, yesterday you should have received a journal, and in it a poem on the absent one. You are the absent one. Did you like it, little one? Are you convinced that I remember you?
Hamaca Raya by Alegria 83 | Free Listening on SoundCloud
On the other hand, you. In ten days, one letter. Me, spread out on the grass, in the evenings, I dream of your gray cap, of your eyes that I love, of you. In Poem VI, for example, what interests us is not whether the gray cap belonged to Albertina, but the use the poet made of it. The poem's imagery is autonomous. The cap, the identity of whose Te recuerdo como eras en el ultimo otofio.
Eras la boina gris y el corazon en calma. Siento viajar tus ojos y es distante el otono: I remember you as you were last Autumn.
The Poetry of Pablo Neruda
You were the gray cap and the heart at peace I feel your eyes traveling and Autumn is far away: Neruda employs a concentrated literary language here. In the first pair of verses the repetition of the same verb form "eras" in a distinct context establishes the comparison, completing the metaphor in a way that is both subtle and direct.
In the second pair the pain of loss is evoked by references not to the absent lover but to the memory of her presence. Again, the condensed language allows many subtle transfers of meaning.
Time and space are mixed, establishing the feeling of remoteness, of a distancing process "Siento viajar tus ojos y es distante el otono".
Albertina Rosa, the subject, has been transformed into the object of poetry. The love poems, rhetorically addressed to her, are potentiated in the mind of the reader who seems categorically excluded from the text. The recently published love letters verify what is already evident in the poetry itself-its hermetic modality.
Lyric apostrophes addressed not to the reader but to someone absent, the voice of the speaker in each poem of love is conscious of the discourse and of its incompleteness. Each composition is a kind of monologue in which the poet speaks as though to himself. It might be more accurate to say that the discursive situation is that of a man alone, writing and 28 Veinte poemas de amor y una canci6n desesperada revising, correcting his expression.
The opening lines of the last of the twenty love poems best define this situation: Puedo escribir los versos mas tristes esta noche. It is all too easy for thought to be channeled into a conventional "literary" formula: The real subject of this composition is not the speaker's stated sadness but the disparity between this sentiment and the words he can summon to express what he feels.
The poem, with thirty-two lines the longest of the twenty, is organized as a series of statements of sadness and frustrated attempts to deal with this feeling poetically. The initial line, a declaration of intention and even of capability-"Puedo escribir Yo la quise J y a veces ella tambien me quiso. En las noches como esta la tuve entre mis brazos. La bese tantas veces bajo el cielo infinito. Ella me quiso, a veces yo tambien fa queria.
Pensar que no la tengo. Sentir que la he perdido. Oir la noche inmensa, mas inmensa sin ella. Y el verso cae al alma como al pasto el rocio. La noche esta estrellada y ella no esta conmigo. A 10 lejos alguien canta. Mi alma no se contenta con haberla perdido. Mi corazan la busea, y ella no esta conmigo.
La misma noehe que haee blanquear los mismos arboles. Nosotros, los de entonces, ya no somos los mismos. Ya no fa quiero J es cierto J pero cudnto la quise. Mi voz buscaba el vien to para tocar su oido. Como antes de mis besos. Su voz, su cuerpo claro. Ya no la quiero es cierto pero tal vez la quiero. Es tan corto el amor, y es tan largo el olvido.
J 30 J Porque en noches como esta la tuve entre mis brazos, mi alma no se contenta con haberla perdido. Aunque este sea el ultimo dolor que ella me causa, y estos sean los ultimos versos que yo Ie escribo.
Emphasis mine I can write the saddest verses tonight. I can write the saddest verses tonight. I loved her, and sometimes she loved me too. On nights like this I had her in my arms. I kissed her so many times under the infinite sky. She loved me, at times I used to love her. How not to I can write the saddest verses tolove her large fixed eyes. To think that I do not have her. To feel that I have lost her. To hear the immense night, more immense without her.
And the verse falls on the soul like the dew on the grass. What does it matter that my love could not keep her.
n3ws.info - Registered at n3ws.info
In the distance someone sings. My soul is not content with having lost her. As though to make her near my glance searches her out. My heart searches for her, and she is not with me.
The same night that makes the same trees white.la hamaca raya nelson henriquez
We, I no longer those of that time, we are no longer the same. My voice Someone else's. She'll besearched the wind to reach her ear. As before my kisses. Her voice, her clear body. I do not love her, it is true, but perhaps I do love her. Love is so short and oblivion is so long. Because on nights like this I had her in my arms, my soul is not content with having lost her. Even though this may be the last pain she causes me, and these may be the last verses I write to her.
In my transcription of the poem certain lines have been italicized in order to emphasize the temporal progression and the speaker's shifting sentiments: Como antes de mis besos" ; and, finally, a return to the present of composition, the anguished and terminal situation of the writer of the poem: J Porque en naches como esta la tuve entre mis brazos, mi alma no se contenta can haberla perdido.
The poem's effectiveness, the reader's empathy with the sincerity of the poetic voice, derives from the fact that this is a com- 31 Love Poetry position unlike any other. Neruda has employed here a rhetoric that is not conventionally poetic. The staggered repetitions, the prosaic syntax, the irregularity of the temporal exposition are distinctive features to be sure, but features not normally found in "good poetry. Reading this entire volume today in the light of what we now know of the circumstances under which it was originally written, it is easy to perceive its overall structure.
Poem XX closes a series of unsuccessful attempts to communicate with the loved one; it is followed, significantly enough, by "La canci6n desesperada" Song of Desperationa final recognition of failure. It is as though each composition contained a separate and special effort to express the same sentiment of sadness and absence.
Only the form of each poem is different. Elegant alexandrines, fixed and unfixed strophic patterns, assonance, consonance, and suppressed rhyme are all used to treat the constant theme of love and loss. This diversity of form and unity of theme and, ultimately, of style combine to communicate a quality much exalted by Romanticism, yet all too often absent from even the best Romantic poetry: Like twenty failed attempts to express the same sentiments, closed by a final cry of desperation, Neruda's book was calculated to affect its reader, any reader, us or Albertina.
For many readers in it was too explicit; for others it was too obscure. Its explicitness, as we have already observed, is relative, but its obscurity less so, since it derives directly from the method of Neruda's expression as well as the moment of experience he chooses to poetize.
The moment of introspection, when the inner self speaks directly to the mind, it is this moment that Neruda treats in his love poetry. The moment when the unarticulated flow of thought has still not been exteriorized. Pensando, soltando pajaros, desvaneciendo imagenes, enterrando lamparas. Thinking, trapping shadows in the profound solitude Thinking, letting birds loose, undoing images, burying lamps.
The concentrated intensity of such disarticulation makes these poems speak with the same unusual power to the reader of today as to the reader of The modern reader, no longer shocked by the sexuality of the poetry, is moved by the confessional intimacy of the emotions that are being exteriorized. Poem V directly treats the theme of communication and even elaborates somewhat on the Becquerian formula of whispered poetry, of a coded expression of intimacy denuded of literary rhetoric: Para que hi me oigas mis palabras se adelgazan a veces como las huellas de las gaviotas en las playas.
Y las miro lejanas mis palabras. Mas que mias son tuyas. Van trepando en mi viejo dolor como las yedras. Antes que tu poblaron la soledad que ocupas, y estan acostumbradas mas que tu a mi tristeza. Ahora quiero que digan 10 que quiero decirte para que tu me oigas como quiero que me oigas. So that you can hear me my words become thin sometimes like the tracks of seagulls on the beach. And I look at my so distant words. More than mine they are yours. They go creeping over myoId wound like ivy Before you they inhabited the solitude that you occupy, and they are accustomed more than you to my sadness.
Now I want them to say what 33 Love Poetry I want to say to you so that you can hear me as I want you to hear me. Again, the repetition of a prosaic formula "para que tu me oigas" is most effectively used to intrigue the reader, to make him feel like an uneasy witness to an amorous exchange. There is really no exchange, no communication, not in this nor in any of the love poems. The speaker is always alone, the lover is always absent, distant, remote.
Thus, the sincerity of the emotion is intensified. Poem XV is perhaps the best known of the twenty poems of love. It is as familiar to the Hispanic reader of today as was Ruben Dario's "Sonatina" at the turn of the century: Me gustas cuando callas porque estas como ausente, y me oyes desde lejos, y mi VOl no te toea.
Parece que los ojos se te hubieran volado y parece que un beso te cerrara la boca. Como todas las cosas estan lIenas de mi alma, emerges de las cosas, llena del alma mia. Mariposa de sueno, te pareces a mi alma, y te pareces a la palabra melancolia. Me gustas cuando callas y estas como distante.
Y estas como quejandote, mariposa en arrullo. Y me oyes desde lejos, y mi VOl no te alcanza: Dejame que me calle con el silencio tuyo. Dejame que te hable tambien con tu silencio claro como una lampara, simple como un anillo.
Eres como la noche, callada y constelada. Tu silencio es de estrella, tan lejano y sencillo. Me gustas cuando callas porque estas como ausente. Distante y dolorosa como si hubieras muerto. Una palabra entonces, una sonrisa bastan. Y estoy alegre, alegre de que no sea cierto. I like you when you are quiet because you are as though absent and you hear me from afar, and my voice doesn't touch 34 Veinte poemas de amor y una canei6n desesperada you.
It seems that your eyes would have flown from you and it seems that a kiss would close your mouth. As all things are filled wi th my soul, you emerge from things, filled with my soul. Dream butterfly, ybu are like my soul, and you are like the word melancholy. I like you when you are quiet and you are as though distant. And you are as though complaining, cooing butterfly. And you hear me from afar, and my voice Let does not reach you: Let me be quiet with your silence.
You are like the nigh t, quiet and stellar. Y'our silence is of a I like you when you are quiet bestar, so distant and simple. Distant and pitiful as though you had died. One word then, one smile is enough. And I am happy, happy that it is not true. The form is regular alexandrines arranged in five symmetric quartets, consonant rhyme in the paired verses and is a visual and prosodic reminder to the reader that this is a composed poem, a literary construction.
In effect, the poem idealizes the sentiment of the book; it glorifies the lover's absence. What is more, it uses simple exhortatory devices repetition and variation to stress resonantly the basic themes of incommunicability, distance, and absence "y me ayes desde lejos, y mi voz no te toea. In recitals this was the composition that Neruda was often requested to read as the most representative of the twenty love poems.
Indeed, Poem XV, like the book itself, has meant many different things to as many different people. Neruda himself was puzzled, not by the poem's popUlarity nor the book's financial success for that matter, but by the real reason for its continued regard.
Incommemorating the publication of the millionth copy, he publicly wondered "how this tormented book has, for so many people, been the route to happiness. When the text first appeared inpoetry was at a crossroads between later Symbolism and the avant-garde, between a renewal of the search for an ever more refined literary expression and the revolutionary notion of the need to update completely the language and the forms of literature: Neruda, formed in one tradition and aware of the other his "Defensa de Vicente Huidobro" is fromchooses a middle ground; he retains the traditional view of the artist as voyant while going on to forge from ordinary experience a new kind of intensity for lyric poetry in Spanish.