7 Red Cross Facts - HISTORY
International humanitarian law (IHL) is the law that regulates the conduct of war ( jus in bello). International humanitarian law operates on a strict division between rules applicable in . These date back to ancient times. . In either case , the persons protected by the Red Cross or the white flag are .. ISBN The emblems of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, under the Geneva which are working in compliance with the rules of the Geneva Conventions. The Red Cross is defined as a protection symbol in Article 7 of the Geneva Convention, Chapter VII ("The distinctive emblem") and Article 38 of. The place and date of the International Conference (hereinafter called “the Conference, unless the Standing Commission agrees to a later date. Rule 7.
7 Red Cross Facts
A one-time clerk in the U. Patent Office, Clara Barton spent the American Civil War nursing wounded troops and distributing supplies at the front. Upon returning home, she began lobbying the U.
She would lead the organization for over two decades, finally resigning at the age of Under Barton, the American Red Cross devoted itself largely to disaster relief, responding to floods, forest fires, tornadoes, a yellow fever epidemic and a hurricane that killed at least 6, people in Galveston, Texas.
Emblems of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement - Wikipedia
At the time of her resignation, the organization had only a few thousand members. It soon grew rapidly, however, in part by cultivating a close relationship with the U. By the end of World War I, over 20 million adults and 11 million children had joined. A red cross is not the only approved symbol of the organization.
Just before the Ottoman Empire went to war with Russia init approved a national Red Cross society with one caveat. Instead of a cross, which they associated with Christianity and medieval crusaders, Ottoman medical personnel identified themselves and their equipment with a crescent.
The two additional protocols adopted in extend and strengthen civilian protection in international AP I and non-international AP II armed conflict: A "civilian" is defined as "any person not belonging to the armed forces", including non-nationals and refugees. Luis Moreno Ocampo, chief prosecutor of the international criminal court, wrote in A crime occurs if there is an intentional attack directed against civilians principle of distinction It requires parties to an armed conflict to distinguish at all times, and under all circumstances, between combatants and military objectives on the one hand, and civilians and civilian objects on the other; and only to target the former.
It also provides that civilians lose such protection should they take a direct part in hostilities.
International humanitarian law
Under IHL, a belligerent may apply only the amount and kind of force necessary to defeat the enemy. Further, attacks on military objects must not cause loss of civilian life considered excessive in relation to the direct military advantage anticipated. Civilians are entitled to respect for their physical and mental integrity, their honour, family rights, religious convictions and practices, and their manners and customs.
Adverse distinction based on race, sex, nationality, religious belief or political opinion is prohibited in the treatment of prisoners of war,  civilians,  and persons hors de combat. Women must be protected from rape and from any form of indecent assault. Children under the age of eighteen must not be permitted to take part in hostilities.
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Protections should be provided "without any adverse distinction founded on sex". For example, with regard to female prisoners of war, women are required to receive treatment "as favourable as that granted to men".
Feminist critics have challenged IHL's focus on male combatants and its relegation of women to the status of victims, and its granting them legitimacy almost exclusively as child-rearers. A study of the 42 provisions relating to women within the Geneva Conventions and the Additional Protocols found that almost half address women who are expectant or nursing mothers.
UN Security Council Resolutions andwhich aim to enhance the protection of women and children against sexual violations in armed conflict; and Resolutionwhich aims to improve the participation of women in post-conflict peacebuilding. In addition, international criminal tribunals like the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda and mixed tribunals like the Special Court for Sierra Leone have contributed to expanding the scope of definitions of sexual violence and rape in conflict.
They have effectively prosecuted sexual and gender-based crimes committed during armed conflict. There is now well-established jurisprudence on gender-based crimes.