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From the listicle to the personalized headline, sensational form has become . BuzzFeed and The Huffington Post, which have taken advantage of social . which each news item was posted, as well as the date of publication. The New York Post is a daily newspaper in New York City. The Post also operates the celebrity . It also has five other Post headlines in its "Greatest Tabloid Headlines" list. of Manhattan, inc., as its first female editor, and within six months the paper had toned down the sensationalist headlines. .. The Huffington Post. Even by the Daily Mail's usual standards, it's been quite a week for appalling headlines from the tabloid. First, there was the important matter of.
HUFFINGTON POST: How Traveling Solo Destroyed My Dating Life
History[ edit ] The New York Post, established on November 16,as the New-York Evening Post, describes itself as the nation's oldest continuously published daily newspaper.
The Providence Journalwhich began daily publication on July 21,also bills itself as the nation's oldest continuously published daily newspaper because the New York Post halted publication during strikes in and Since the s it has been published only on weekends. President and the rise in popularity of the Democratic-Republican Party. There, in addition to literary and drama reviews, Leggett began to write political editorials.
Leggett's classical liberal philosophy entailed a fierce opposition to central bankinga support for voluntary labor unions, and a dedication to laissez-faire economics. He was a member of the Equal Rights Party.
Leggett became a co-owner and editor at Post in ,[ citation needed ] eventually working as sole editor of the newspaper while Bryant traveled in Europe in through Unable to stem the paper's financial losses, he sold it to a consortium of 34 financial and reform political leaders, headed by Edwin Francis Gaydean of the Harvard Business Schoolwhose members included Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
Curtis  —publisher of the Ladies Home Journal —purchased New-York Evening Post in  and briefly turned it into a non-sensational tabloid in David Stern purchased the paper, changed its name to the New York Post,  and restored its broadsheet size and liberal perspective. Her husband, George Backer, was named editor and publisher. Inhe turned over the news section to Paul Sann and remained as editorial-page editor until Murdoch ownership[ edit ] In Novemberit was announced that Rupert Murdoch had bought the Post from Schiff with the intention she would remain as a consultant for five years.
The paper has lost money ever since. For the film, see Headless Body in Topless Bar. One of the paper's most famous headlines, from the April 15, edition Murdoch imported the tabloid journalism style of many of his Australian and British newspapers, such as The Sunwhich remains the highest selling daily newspaper in the UK. This style was typified by the Post's famous headlines such as "Headless body in topless bar" shown on the right, written by Vincent Musetto.
In its 35th-anniversary edition, New York magazine listed this as one of the greatest headlines.
What Tabloid Headlines Would Look Like Without The Sexism
It also has five other Post headlines in its "Greatest Tabloid Headlines" list. Kalikowa real-estate magnate with no news experience. Your big scoops are great, but they don't sell more papers. After a staff revolt against the Hoffenberg-Hirschfeld partnership—which included publication of an issue whose front page featured the iconic masthead picture of founder Alexander Hamilton with a single tear drop running down his cheek   —the Post was again purchased in by Murdoch's News Corporation.
This came about after numerous political officials, including Democratic governor of New York Mario Cuomopersuaded the Federal Communications Commission to grant Murdoch a permanent waiver from the cross-ownership rules that had forced him to sell the paper five years earlier. Under Murdoch's renewed direction, the paper continued its conservative editorial viewpoint. A test run in July would occur on Fox Television Stations. It is a social problem — a force for evil.
Former Post executive editor Steven D. Cuozzo has responded that the Post "broke the elitist media stranglehold on the national agenda. The Enemy Strikes Black is a complaint about what they believed to be negative and inaccurate coverage blacks received from the paper. The Post's coverage of the murder of Hasidic landlord Menachem Stark prompted outrage from Jewish communal leaders and public figures. Please integrate the section's contents into the article as a whole, or rewrite the material.
September This section may contain indiscriminateexcessiveor irrelevant examples. Please improve the article by adding more descriptive text and removing less pertinent examples. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for further suggestions. January There have been numerous controversies surrounding the Post: Sealfon was sponsored by the Daily Newsa direct in-market competitor. Post published a picture of her but altered the photograph to remove the name of the Daily News as printed on a placard she was wearing.
Sharing and interacting with online content is an integral part of participatory journalism practices. In online environments, the audience plays a significant role in increasing the distribution capacity of news and establishing quality standards.
On social media networks, this role is fulfilled by different interactions with content, including liking, sharing, and commenting on news items. To some degree, these interactions assess quality as well as virality within a social network. This journalist-audience interaction is pivotal in creating viral news.
The analysis showed that news stories with more emotional content i. Today, this operationalization is limiting, especially because news sharing becomes a more prevalent practice in social networks than through e-mails. The present study, however, uses total interaction numbers and for this study, these numbers come from the leading social media platform Facebook to assess the characteristics of viral content.
Using the combination of multiple types of interactions commenting, sharing, liking we are better able to assign a quantitative value, at the very least, of the number of times people interacted with information within this platform suggesting the potential for virality in one dominating social network.
Sensationalism To some extent, the negative perceptions of participatory journalism can be associated with similar arguments and negative perceptions of sensationalism. Sensationalism has been ambiguously defined for years. However, the evaluation of sensationalism is best understood by Haskins who refers to sensationalism as evoking curiosity—albeit he believes this curiosity is morbid.
The morbidity of sensationalism is rather an evaluation than a characteristic of the term, and ultimately, the evaluation of sensationalism creates a debate about the concept. At one end, scholars view sensationalism as a model for showing decency by exploiting the extreme Stevens, In these instances, sensationalism is akin to the stories found in tabloids, and at the core of their arguments is the content, not the structure.
By removing the evaluation, and focusing directly on the notion that sensationalism is a form that evokes curiosity, we can examine this term as a more legitimate strategy in emerging journalism practices. The increased prevalence of sensationalistic journalism in the digital realm intentionally seeks to engage audiences through simplistic, attractive content that drives audience emotion or peaks interest.
In an explication of sensationalism, Grabe and colleagues argued that the concept deals with both form and content. Form is identified by the techniques—writing and visual—that help present stories in a sensational way.
Specifically, we look at particular stylistic and curiosity-evoking forms and article structures in which sensationalism might thrive: At the core of soft news are tactics identified with sensationalism: According to Pattersonsoft news articles are centered on human-interest stories and sensationalistic features. Additionally, soft news articles are structured in a way that leads to more narrative styles of writing, a form much less rigid than breaking news stories. Hard news stories typically include breaking events, invoke values of timeliness and importance, and adhere to the inverted pyramid design, and thus are less likely to include sensational topics.
Blom and Hansen argued that many headlines include the linguistic facets of forward referencing. This strategy identifies an object without first giving it a definition, using pronouns and demonstrative adjectives instead, leaving the actual subject as a mystery.
These tactics use a form of provoking reader interest by introducing information gaps that entice to click on the headline.
The 15 Most Daily Mail Headlines Ever | HuffPost UK
Examples of forward-referencing illustrate the variety of ways in which users can generate curiosity and suspense, tempting some readers to continue reading to find out information that would have traditionally been already available in a more traditional headline. In their study of Danish publications, Blom and Hansen found forward-referencing techniques present in about Another potential curiosity-driving element of sensationalism is personalization: Mateson argues that outlets such as The Guardian created weblogs that bridge gaps with the reader by building interpersonal relations.
One way in this interpersonal relationship thrives is though an inclusive and explicit use of personal pronouns. Lauerbach contends that this personalization of information is an intentional effort to connect with audiences on an intimate level. Additionally, imperative sentences that have understood subjects are forms of personalized headline writing.
We argue that this strategy also evokes curiosity in readers by identifying personally with the reader, and could also be considered a form of sensationalism. Personalization creates an invitation for audiences to not only read, but also engage on a personal level—not a traditional value of news. Headlines for listicles typically begin with a cardinal number and organize information in the form of a list.
While BuzzFeed is often credited as the king of the listicle in the online news sphere Alpert, ; Cresci,the inclusion of this type of content in news outlets has grown in recent years. Listicles are also derided for their role as part of a trend of degradation in content quality.
Information in listicles is organized into a concrete number of items: Listicles entice the reader provide a useful structure for a seemingly comprehensive analysis of an issue with brevity. Research Questions and Hypotheses The overall question guiding this study is the degree to which news audiences in social media environments interacted with content that was structured sensationally.
We examine each sensational form—soft news, forward referencing, personalization and listicles—as indicators of the degree to which sensational form might contribute to overall virality. To what extent do hard and soft news appear in viral headlines? How do hard and soft news strategies appear differently in viral news between traditional and online native publications? To what extent does personalization appear in viral headlines? How do personalized strategies appear differently in viral news between traditional and digitally native news organizations?
To what extent do listicles appear in viral headlines? How do listicles appear differently in viral news between traditional and digitally native news organizations? To what extent does forward referencing appear in viral headlines? Forward referencing is more likely to appear in soft news stories.
Forward referencing is more likely to appear in digitally native publications. Methodology To answer the research questions and test the hypotheses presented above, we conducted a content analysis of content and structural characteristics of online headlines from seven news organizations. The subscription allowed the researchers access to download content from a set list of news organization tracked by Newswhip.
Ultimately, seven media companies were purposefully selected for the study. The Huffington Post and BuzzFeed. We identified potential viral or highly valued news articles by isolating the top most viral stories news stories with the highest sum of social media interactions on Facebook total number of comments, shares and likes for the year from all seven publications.
While we acknowledge other social media platforms are can be critical players in spreading viral news, we isolate Facebook because it is the largest social network in the world, and because social media platforms each have distinctive cultures and audiences, and thus what is viral on one network may not be viral within another.
After eliminating three duplicate entries we were left with items for coding: The number of items coded from each individual news outlet is as follows: Coding featured the following variables: The results of this ICR test were satisfactory according to Poindexter and McCombswith reliability coefficients ranging from kappas of.
Individual kappa scores are reported with descriptions of each variable. NewsWhip data included the domain URL under which each news item was posted, as well as the date of publication. Headlines were coded for wording that addresses or involves the reader directly: Headlines were coded for the inclusion of words that allude to events or newsmakers that require reading the full article for understanding. A third structural recurrent among the most viral articles in the sample was the use of lists and countdowns.
These pieces, coined listicles, usually have headlines that describe the category of the listed items, as well as the total number. Listicle features are not mutually exclusive with forward referencing and personalization. Descriptive statistics and chi-square analysis were run to answer most variables in this study.
RQ1 and RQ2 asked the degree to which hard and soft news appears in viral headlines and this appearance variation by news organization types. Frequencies were used to identify the extent of content variations, and chi-square tests were run to understand variations in news publications.
RQ3 through RQ6 asked the extent to which personalization and listicles appeared in viral headlines and their differences by news organization type. Descriptive statistics and chi-square analysis were used to answer these questions.
RQ7 asked the degree to which forward referencing appeared, and was answered using descriptive statistics. H1 Forward-referencing is more likely to appear in soft news stories and H2 Forward-referencing is more likely to appear in digitally native publications were both answered using chi-squared analysis.
The results of our content analysis showed The remaining research questions and hypotheses deal with the structure of the headlines and their prevalence in different types of news stories.
RQ3 asks about the prevalence of personalization in the most viral headlines from According to the analysis, headlines, amounting to Analysis revealed that stories RQ7 addresses the prevalence of forward referencing strategies, such as the use of indicative pronouns or adjectives, or the deliberate introduction of information gaps in headlines. According to the results of the content analysis, 43 headlines, amounting to 7. Among these, the most common strategy was the use of This, either as a demonstrative adjective or as a pronoun, and was found in 20 headlines, or 3.
Less common were the use of What 2. H1 predicts that forward referencing is more likely to appear in soft news than hard news. These crosstabs show that only four hard news stories 2. In a similar vein, H2 postulates digitally native content providers would be significantly more prone to use forward referencing. As noted in RQ2, only 43 stories overall included forward referencing, 30 of which appeared in digitally native organizations and 13 that appeared in traditional publications.
Discussion Social media has opened the doors to expansive modes of two-way communication between media organizations and audiences. These interactions have led to wider scopes of information distribution to hard-to-reach audiences, and allow news organizations to have audience assessment of material.
Scholarship that focuses on the digital realm seeks to answer questions such as: What do audiences share with their peers? How do they interact with content? In this study, we sought to understand how frequently sensational forms appear in viral online content and what types of organizations are more likely to employ these tactics. Our findings revealed that among the most viral news stories, those published by digitally native organizations are more likely to feature sensationalistic forms.
While legacy organizations have a significant presence in viral content and utilize sensational tactics to engage audiences, these strategies appear less frequently in their viral content in comparison to online native organizations.
The possible use differences may be partially accredited to the varying business models of digitally native and traditional organizations.
While traditional organizations have established offline revenue sources—such as subscription and broadcast advertising—digitally native organization compete with both the traditional organization and other online content providers. Thus, the attention-grabbing sensational practices may be more reliable for them to gather much-needed traffic, which often a significant part of their business models. A prominent form of sensational from in viral news items is the listicle.
Listicles accounted for about one-quarter of viral content in this study, and online native organizations successfully use the tactic most often. Listicles also offer a commercial advantage for news organizations. For example, listicles that require the reader to click on multiple pages will generate more impressions for a page. How has, or will, this organization find balance and credibility in the continued production of what appears to be their standard, sensational and viral content while producing more hard-setting news for the masses?
If BuzzFeed is, in fact, providing more standard news, we speculate there are different economic incentives for doing such than those of their entertainment content. Overall, viral news articles are mainly soft news; hard news and breaking news formats were a minority of the viral content put out by online news outlets.
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Instead, viral news production is about disseminating content that is relatable and narratively written. This observation is important for news management companies who are continually adopting strategies to engage publics within this particular network. In terms of a global distribution strategy for news content, the personalized, narratively written and soft news formats are more likely to be shared in a more expansive way than hard news.
We do not make the assertion that hard news is any less important, and certainly has its place in social media networks. However, for journalists aiming to expand their reach to national or global levels, sensational approaches examined in this study may be more successful for articles with less temporal immediacy.
An important limitation of this study is that these viral tactics are not necessarily valid in other social media networks. Future studies should examine cross-network virality and the variations in content from with high levels of audience interactions in additional platforms such as Twitter, Tumblr, and Instagram. Our findings also illustrate that readers may choose to interact with content from traditional news organizations for different reasons than digitally native organizations.
Among traditional media, most viral stories were breaking, hard news—indicating audiences continue to turn to them to share that type of immediate information, instead of digitally news organizations. In spite of the great popularity that sites like BuzzFeed and The Huffington Post currently enjoy, legacy media still command higher levels of trust Pew Research Center,and thus this may account for the content variations found in this study.
Additionally, this finding indicates that sheer evaluation of news quality and effectiveness should not be limited to social media interactions and possibility of viral news. On the other end of the spectrum, audiences may prefer to share information from digitally native organizations that are more narratively based. Similarly, it is also possible that legacy media companies, such as The New York Times, choose social media agendas at the beginning of the day, and like Lee, Lewis and Powers suggest, these agendas primarily consist of hard news topics.
These strategies, again, were significantly more prevalent in content from digitally native media than in the sites of legacy news outlets. However, when examining the output of individual media organizations, we were able to identify that among traditional media The Guardian is particularly more open to using personalization strategies, with personalized headlines appearing in Forward referencing was present in viral media only about 7.
While this study does not attempt to predict the extent of the use of forward referencing, it appears that in the United States this is an emerging tactic that entices audiences to be interested in or engage with content in social media arenas. The observations from this content analysis place online native organizations as perhaps the best at creating viral content; BuzzFeed and The Huffington Post alone make up more than half of the sample of widely shared stories.
However, the forms of sensationalism that online native organizations use are not present near as often in traditional media, leaving extensive room for further exploration. If these structural elements are most prevalent in digitally native organization viral headlines, what specific characteristics of traditional media produce viral news aside from breaking news?
Future studies should examine the content of viral news—such as topics and news values—which could potentially provide more insight for commonalities in viral news. Still, these findings reveal that online journalism outlets can still utilize sensational forms as an opportunity for engaging wider audiences. By identifying form variances in viral content, this study highlights the degree to which some forms of sensationalism are observable in the most viral media. This study only accounts for a partial description of viral content.
We urge future researchers to look into the sensationalism from a contextual standpoint i. This is particularly the case for traditional media organizations, which appear to either employ these tactics less often, or to have less success with audiences interacting with sensationally structured content.