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In gamma-ray astronomy, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are extremely energetic explosions that . This suggested an origin of either very faint stars or extremely distant One of the most successful space missions to date, Swift, was launched in . There is strong evidence that some short-duration gamma-ray bursts occur in. Actor Liev Schreiber is scheduled to appear in Rockland County court Tuesday for allegedly harassing a photographer in June. aDvenTurous. DaTing. Vince had some suspicions himself about Gil and Ray. Vince and Gil had been best friends since childhood. Vince would do anything to .
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Assuming the gamma-ray explosion to be spherical, the energy output of GRB B would be within a factor of two of the rest-mass energy of the Sun the energy which would be released were the Sun to be converted entirely into radiation. When a gamma-ray burst is pointed towards Earth, the focusing of its energy along a relatively narrow beam causes the burst to appear much brighter than it would have been were its energy emitted spherically.
Very bright supernovae have been observed to accompany several of the nearest GRBs. Wolf—Rayet stars are candidates for being progenitors of long-duration GRBs. Because of the immense distances of most gamma-ray burst sources from Earth, identification of the progenitors, the systems that produce these explosions, is challenging.
The association of some long GRBs with supernovae and the fact that their host galaxies are rapidly star-forming offer very strong evidence that long gamma-ray bursts are associated with massive stars.
The most widely accepted mechanism for the origin of long-duration GRBs is the collapsar model,  in which the core of an extremely massive, low- metallicityrapidly rotating star collapses into a black hole in the final stages of its evolution. Matter near the star's core rains down towards the center and swirls into a high-density accretion disk. The infall of this material into a black hole drives a pair of relativistic jets out along the rotational axis, which pummel through the stellar envelope and eventually break through the stellar surface and radiate as gamma rays.
Some alternative models replace the black hole with a newly formed magnetar  although most other aspects of the model the collapse of the core of a massive star and the formation of relativistic jets are the same. The closest analogs within the Milky Way galaxy of the stars producing long gamma-ray bursts are likely the Wolf—Rayet starsextremely hot and massive stars, which have shed most or all of their hydrogen to radiation pressure. Eta Carinae and WR have been cited as possible future gamma-ray burst progenitors.
There is strong evidence that some short-duration gamma-ray bursts occur in systems with no star formation and no massive stars, such as elliptical galaxies and galaxy halos. According to this model, the two stars in a binary slowly spiral towards each other because gravitational radiation releases energy   until tidal forces suddenly rip the neutron stars apart and they collapse into a single black hole. The infall of matter into the new black hole produces an accretion disk and releases a burst of energy, analogous to the collapsar model.
Numerous other models have also been proposed to explain short gamma-ray bursts, including the merger of a neutron star and a black hole, the accretion-induced collapse of a neutron star, or the evaporation of primordial black holes. This event had a gamma-ray duration of about 2 days, much longer than even ultra-long GRBs, and was detected in X-rays for many months.
There is an ongoing debate as to whether the explosion was the result of stellar collapse or a tidal disruption event accompanied by a relativistic jet, although the latter explanation has become widely favoured. A tidal disruption event of this sort is when a star interacts with a supermassive black hole shredding the star, and in some cases creating a relativistic jet which produces bright emission of gamma ray radiation.
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Gamma-ray burst emission mechanisms The means by which gamma-ray bursts convert energy into radiation remains poorly understood, and as of there was still no generally accepted model for how this process occurs. In this model, pre-existing low-energy photons are scattered by relativistic electrons within the explosion, augmenting their energy by a large factor and transforming them into gamma-rays. Any energy released by the explosion not radiated away in the burst itself takes the form of matter or energy moving outward at nearly the speed of light.
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As this matter collides with the surrounding interstellar gasit creates a relativistic shock wave that then propagates forward into interstellar space. A second shock wave, the reverse shock, may propagate back into the ejected matter. Extremely energetic electrons within the shock wave are accelerated by strong local magnetic fields and radiate as synchrotron emission across most of the electromagnetic spectrum.
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Considering the universe as a whole, the safest environments for life similar to that on Earth are the lowest density regions in the outskirts of large galaxies. Furthermore, galaxies with a redshift, z, higher than 0. However, if a GRB were to occur within the Milky Way and its emission were beamed straight towards Earth, the effects could be harmful and potentially devastating for the ecosystems.
Currently, orbiting satellites detect on average approximately one GRB per day. Estimates of rate of occurrence of short-duration GRBs are even more uncertain because of the unknown degree of collimation, but are probably comparable. The immediate effect on life on Earth from a GRB within a few parsecs would only be a short increase in ultraviolet radiation at ground level, lasting from less than a second to tens of seconds.
This ultraviolet radiation could potentially reach dangerous levels depending on the exact nature and distance of the burst, but it seems unlikely to be able to cause a global catastrophe for life on Earth. Gamma rays cause chemical reactions in the atmosphere involving oxygen and nitrogen moleculescreating first nitrogen oxide then nitrogen dioxide gas.
The nitrogen oxides cause dangerous effects on three levels. This reduction is enough to cause a dangerously elevated UV index at the surface.
Secondly, the nitrogen oxides cause photochemical smogwhich darkens the sky and blocks out parts of the sunlight spectrum. However, the smog could potentially cause a cooling effect on Earth's climate, producing a "cosmic winter" similar to an impact winterbut without an impactbut only if it occurs simultaneously with a global climate instability.
Thirdly, the elevated nitrogen levels in the atmosphere would wash out and produce nitric acid rain. Nitric acid is toxic to a variety of organisms, including amphibian life, but models predict that it would not reach levels that would cause a serious global effect. The nitrates might in fact be of benefit to some plants. Models show that the destructive effects of this increase can cause up to 16 times the normal levels of DNA damage. It has proved difficult to assess a reliable evaluation of the consequences of this on the terrestrial ecosystem, because of the uncertainty in biological field and laboratory data.
The late Ordovician species of trilobites that spent portions of their lives in the plankton layer near the ocean surface were much harder hit than deep-water dwellers, which tended to remain within quite restricted areas.
This is in contrast to the usual pattern of extinction events, wherein species with more widely spread populations typically fare better.
A possible explanation is that trilobites remaining in deep water would be more shielded from the increased UV radiation associated with a GRB. Also supportive of this hypothesis is the fact that during the late Ordovician, burrowing bivalve species were less likely to go extinct than bivalves that lived on the surface.
A nearby GRB candidate[ edit ] Main article: