of adolescents' dating violence victimization, well-being and Developmental and Educational Psychology, Psychiatry and Mental health. Teen dating violence, mental well-being, mental health problems, binge drinking, The relationship between DV victimization and mental health problems. The results of this study support the idea for providing dating violence prevention the grave associations between adolescent dating violence, poor mental health, between dating violence victimization and psychological well-being among.
Focus group participants reported they generally did not trust and did not feel close to adults in professional roles. Students were especially concerned with confidentiality when disclosing to professionals, as well as to peers and family members.
Adolescent Dating Violence Victimization and Psychological Well-Being
In addition, researchers have reported that adolescents fear they will be blamed for the abuse Foshee et al. Worries about stigma Clement et al. Measures of perceived social support assess whether there are friends and family members available to offer support when needed. By comparison, measures of informal help-seeking assess whether a person will ask or has asked friends and family members for support with a specific need or problem.
It is logical that those with higher perceptions of available support from friends and family members would be more likely to ask friends and family members for help when a need arises than would those with lower perceptions of social support.
Findings of Sheffield et al. They found that adolescents with greater levels of perceived social support were more likely than those with lower levels to seek informal help for a mental illness. Other studies have focused on the relationship between social support and professional help-seeking with conflicting results. Sherbourne indicated adolescents with more close friends were less likely to seek professional help, whereas Rickwood and Braithwaite indicated no differences in professional help-seeking by levels of social support.
In a study of adolescent self-harm, Wu, Steward, Huang, Prince, and Liu found that medical contact was associated with higher levels of negative social support and fewer social network members outside of the home, suggesting that positive social support leads to lower rates of professional help.
The Link From Informal to Formal Help-Seeking Evidence suggests that informal help-seeking may be instrumental in seeking professional help. Most women who seek professional services do so after seeking help from family and friends Postmus et al. In a comprehensive review of the literature on preventing suicide risk, Whitlock, Wyman, and Moore found that strong connections with adults in important social settings, such as schools, increase the likelihood that adolescents will seek formal mental health services and, thus, reduce their overall risk of suicide.
Various arguments have been used to explain the relationship between formal and informal help-seeking. The current body of literature on adolescent dating violence and help-seeking has not focused on a link between informal and formal help-seeking, other than to gauge the extent to which adolescent help-givers encourage, or intend to encourage, other adolescents to seek professional services. These findings are mixed.
Given the need for studies that explore pathways to professional help-seeking in the context of adolescent dating violence, and the need to further explore the relationships between perceived social support, informal help-seeking, and professional help-seeking, the following research questions were proposed: To what extent do rural, southern adolescents intend to seek informal and professional help if they experience dating violence?
How does help-seeking differ by gender, ethnicity, and age?
Participants were asked about violence victimization experienced in each relationship by using A-CASI. For the present analyses, a dichotomous variable was created, indicating whether participants endorsed the particular victimization item in any of their romantic or sexual relationships.
Associations with adverse outcomes were explored in 2 TDV subgroups: The comparison group was adolescents reporting having dating partners but no dating violence at Wave 2. Pubertal Status At Wave 2, participants rated themselves on 3 indicators of physical maturity, similar to items found in the Pubertal Development Scale. Higher scores indicate more advanced pubertal status.
Child Maltreatment Child maltreatment was measured retrospectively at Wave 3 by using 3 items, reflecting neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse. Forced Sex At Waves 1 and 2, female participants only were asked if they were physically forced to have sexual intercourse against their will by any person.
Longitudinal Associations Between Teen Dating Violence Victimization and Adverse Health Outcomes
A dichotomous variable reflects endorsement of forced sex by female participants at either wave. Antisocial Behaviors Seven items from the Self-Reported Delinquency scale assessed the frequency of antisocial behaviors over the past 12 months. Sexual Risk Based on previous Add Health sexual risk indices, 3334 we included 5 risk behaviors in this scale: Each item was dichotomized and summed; higher scores indicate greater risk range, 0—5.
Extreme Weight Control A dichotomous variable indicates if participants reported any of 3 extreme weight control items in the past 7 days to lose weight or keep from gaining weight self-induced vomiting, taking diet pills, or taking laxatives.
Suicidality A dichotomous variable reflects if participants reported seriously thinking about committing suicide in the past 12 months.
Substance Use Participants reported on smoking behavior in the past 30 days. This variable was dichotomized, indicating smoking on 1 or more days. To assess drinking behavior, participants reported how many times they drank 5 or more drinks in a row in the past year.
Past year illicit substance use was divided into 2 categories: Both variables were dichotomized, indicating any marijuana or other drug use in the past 12 months. In a multisite sample of low-income children and families, Schnurr and Lohman 13 demonstrated that a lack of perceived school safety moderated the effects of the intergenerational transmission of partner violence on TDV perpetration, but only for African American boys.
Thus, the purpose of this study was to fill a gap by examining the associations between several school violence-related experiences and behaviors including bullying, weapon carrying, threatening with a weapon, physical fighting, and feeling unsafe at school and physical and sexual TDV victimization using the revised and new questions from the national YRBS.
Instrumentation The national school-based YRBS is a cross-sectional survey that has been conducted biennially since The YRBS monitors priority health-risk behaviors among youth. For this study, physical and sexual TDV were analyzed as independent variables and the school violence-related experiences and behaviors including physical fighting on school property, being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property, weapon carrying on school property, and not going to school because of safety concerns and bullying victimization were outcome variables.
Count such things as being hit, slammed into something, or injured with an object or weapon. Count such things as kissing, touching, or being physically forced to have sexual intercourse. It is not bullying when 2 students of about the same strength or power argue or fight or tease each other in a friendly way.
Procedures The national school-based YRBS uses a 3-stage cluster-sample design to obtain a nationally representative sample of public and private school students grades 9—12 throughout all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Student participation is anonymous and voluntary and adheres to local parental consent procedures.
Students report their responses on a self-administered questionnaire optimal scan sheet. Sampling weights are applied to each record to adjust for nonresponse and the oversampling of black and Hispanic students. More details regarding sampling strategies and the psychometric properties of the YRBS questionnaire have been reported elsewhere.